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THE      AFFINITY 


THE    HEBREW    LANGUAGE 


THE    CELTIC: 


A  COMPARISON  BETWEEN  HEBREW  AND  THE  GAELIC  LANGUAGE, 

OR    THE   CELTIC    OF   SCOTLAND. 


THOMAS     STEATTON,     M.D.  Edin. 
E.iV. 

Third    Edition. 


EDINBURGH : 

MACLACHAN    AND    STEWART,    SOUTH    BRIDGE. 

LONDON:      SIMPKIN,     MARSHALL,     AND     CO. 

PLYMOUTH:      W.    BRENDON    AND   SON. 

1872. 


Price  Two  Shillings. 


^r-  7  V^*  £j£__^ 


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j~Af.  "/z 


/,    ,   gW&fa^-, 


THE      AFFINITY 

BETWEEN 

THE    HEBREW   LANGUAGE 

AND 

THE    CELTIC: 

BEINO 

A  COMPARISON  BETWEEN  HEBREW  AND  THE  GAELIC  LANGUAGE, 

OR    THE    CELTIC   OF   SCOTLAND. 


THOMAS     STKATTON,     M.D.  Edin., 

Dep.  Inspector-Gen.,  R.N. 

Third    Edition. 


EDINBURGH: 
MACLACHAN    AND    STEWART,    SOUTH    BRIDGE. 

LONDON:      SIMPKIN,     MARSHALL,     AND     CO. 

PLYMOUTH  :      W.    BR.ENDON    AND   SON. 

1872. 


; 


SIR     ALEXANDER     ARMSTRONG,     K.C.B., 

M.D.  Edin., 

HONORARY   PHYSICIAN   TO   THE   QUEEN, 


Sir, 

As  that  branch  of  Medicine  called  Physiology  includes 
an  account  of  the  different  races  of  mankind,  and  as  a  description  of 
the  various  divisions  of  the  human  family  has  to  he  illustrated  chiefly 
by  referring  to  the  languages  spoken  by  them,  there  is  some  reason 
for  saying  that  the  affinity  of  languages  is  a  subject  within  the  wide 
area  of  Medical  Inquiry. 

In  1833  I  drew  up  a  short  Comparative  Vocabulary  of  Hebrew  and 
Gaelic.  In  1810  this  was  printed  at  the  end  of  my  Comparative 
Vocabulary  of  Greek  and  Gaelic.  In  1870  it  was  reprinted  without 
any  alteration.  After  1833  or  1840  I  did  not  look  into  the  subject 
again  till  November,  1871,  when,  after  a  few  days,  I  made  the  discovery 
that  by  taking  away  the  first  part  of  many  Hebrew  words  the  next 
syllable,  or  the  next  two  syllables,  resembled  in  sound  and  meaning  a 
word  in  Gaelic.  The  words  which,  treated  in  this  way,  give  this  result 
number  about  four  hundred  and  fifty. 

At  first  I  intended  waiting  till  I  had  time  to  re-arrange  the  matter 
of  my  other  essays  relating  to  Gaelic  {Celtic  Origin  of  Greek  and  Latin 
and  of  Classical  Proper  Names),  but  on  second  thoughts,  it  seemed  to 
me  that  the  subject  was  of  so  much  interest  and  novelty,  that  the 
Essay  was  worthy  of  being  published  at  once,  and  also  of  being 
inscribed  to  one  who,  some  years  ago,  was  selected  to  be  the  Head  of 
an  important  Department  of  the  Public  Service. 

I  am,  Sir,  your  obedient  Servant, 

THOMAS     ST11ATTON,     M.D., 

IÌ.X. 
May,  1S72. 


PREFACE. 


Of  those  who  may  take  up  this  short  Essay  relating  to  Gaelic,  it 
occurs  to  me  that  some  may  wish  to  know  what  local  opportunities 
the  writer  has  had  of  being  practically  acquainted  with  that  language. 

As,  every  ten  or  twenty  years,  the  number  of  those  who  speak 
Gaelic  is  somewhat  less,  it  is  as  well  to  make  some  reference  to  dates. 

Although  it  is  said  that  egotism  should  be  avoided,  let  me  mention 
that,  born  in  the  town  of  Perth  (1816),  I  remained  there  for  about 
eight  years. 

I  then  lived,  for  about  five  years,  fifteen  miles  north-west  from 
Perth,  at  Dunkeld,  which  is  on  the  Gaelic  border,  and  has  been  called 
the  mouth  of  the  Highlands.  Being  the  mouth  of  the  Highlands,  it 
has  been  said  of  it  that  it  ought  to  speak  Gaelic.  Every  day  I  heard 
a  good  deal  of  Gaelic  spoken,  but  I  did  not  pay  any  attention  to  it. 

The  next  four  years,  from  1829  to  1833, 1  spent  in  Northumberland. 
In  1831  a  strong  feeling  of  nationality — which  I  have  always  had  on 
all  subjects — took  the  particular  bent  of  a  wish  to  learn  Gaelic.  At 
the  age  of  fifteen  I  procured  Stewart's  Gaelic  Grammar,  Macleod  and 
Dewar's  Gaelic  Dictionary,  and  a  few  other  books;  and  in  the  course 
of  two  or  three  months,  without  any  help,  taught  myself  the  language. 

The  next  four  years,  from  November,  1833,  to  August,  1837,  I  was 
in  Scotland,  attending  medical  classes  at  college,  and  had  no  time  for 
any  except  professional  studies. 

In  July,  1840,  the  Affinity  of  Latin  to  the  Celtic  was  published ;  in 
September,  1810,  the  Celtic  Origin  of  Greek  (at  the  end  of  this  was 
given  a  short  Comparative  Vocabulary  of  Hebrew  and  Gaelic) ;  and, 
in  1815,  the  Celtic  Origin  of  Classical  Proper  Names. 

In  1870  a  second  edition  was  issued  of  all  the  above. 

I  have  been  about  twenty-six  years  in  full-pay  in  the  Navy,  of 
which  about  ten  years  in  different  parts  of  Canada,  and  after  that 
about  ten  years  and  a  half  in  Prince  Edward  Island,  near  Nova  Scotia 
— in  the  winter  at  Prince  Edward  Island,  and  in  the  summer  about 


6  PREFACE. 

Cape  Breton,  Nova  Scotia,  Newfoundland,  &c.  In  various  localities 
in  Nova  Scotia,  Cape  Breton,  and  Prince  Edward  Island,  there  is  a 
good  deal  of  Gaelic  spoken ;  but  I  was  not  in  these  particular  districts. 
For  eighteen  years  (1849  to  1867)  I  was  not  once  in  Scotland.  To 
Dunkeld  and  its  vicinity  four  or  five  visits  of  a  few  weeks  each  have 
of  late  been  all  the  opportunity  I  have  had  of  hearing  Gaelic  spoken. 

As  to  the  area  over  which  Gaelic  is  or  has  been  spoken,  and  the- 
degree  of  its  use  therein,  some  information  may  be  found  in  the  three 
following  publications  : — 

The  Statistical  Account  of  Scotland,  in  twenty- one  volumes,  pub- 
lished between  1791  and  1799,  was  drawn  up  from  the  communications 
of  the  ministers  of  the  different  parishes. 

The  Nctr  Statistical  Account  of  Scotland,  in  fifteen  volumes,  octavo, 
published  about  1817.  This  is  on  a  better  plan  than  the  former,  as 
each  county  is  in  a  separate  volume,  and  may  be  purchased  separately. 

For  a  great  many  years  Messrs.  Oliver  and  Boyd  have  published 
the  Edinburgh  Almanac,  a  yearly  volume  containing  copious  infor- 
mation on  most  subjects  relating  to  Scotland :  it  notes  the  churches 
where  the  service  is  either  wholly  or  partially  in  Gaelic.  The  year 
18 1J  was  the  one  when  it  began  to  denote  this.  It  is  to  be  hoped  that 
it  will  ever  continue  to  do  so. 

Every  time  that  the  decennial  census  is  taken,  it  would  be  very 
desirable  in  the  Highlands  and  Hebrides  to  ascertain — 1.  The  number 
c-f  persons  who  speak  Gaelic  only.  2.  Number  who  speak  Gaelic  and 
English.  3.  Total  number  speaking  Gaelic.  4.  Number  able  to  read 
Gaelic,  o.  Proportion  per  cent,  of  Gaelic -speaking  persons,  and  the 
total  population  of  each  parish  and  county.  These  few  columns  being 
added  to  the  tables  would  not  be  much  additional  trouble  to  the 
enumerators.  It  was  in  1801  that  they  began  the  regular  system  of 
taking  the  census  every  ten  years.  Foreigners  will  hardly  believe 
that  a  matter  so  important  and  interesting  has  alwa}rs  been  neglected. 
During  the  year  1870,  from  various  bodies  and  individuals,  letters 
were  sent  urging  that  the  results  of  the  census  of  1871  should  contain 
this  information ;  but  Highlanders  and  enthusiastic  Gaelic  scholars 
were  again  disappointed.  If  at  each  census  these  language-statistics 
were  ascertained  and  published,  they  would  in  after  times  bo  looked 
upon  as  a  valuable  historical  record.  It  is  very  sad  that  the  census  of 
1871  should  have  this  defect  or  omission:  perhaps  the  General 
Assembly  of  the  Church  of  Scotland  might  request  the  minister  of 
each  parish  in  the  Highlands  and  Hebrides  to  draw  up  the  number  of 
the  Gaelic-speaking  inhabitants,  &c. 


PREFACE.  7 

The  same  steps  ought  to  he  taken  at  each  census  in  Ireland,  Wales, 
and  the  Isle  of  Man.  In  Wales  the  matter  was  always  neglected  till 
1871.  In  the  Isle  of  Man  it  has  always  heen  neglected.  In  Ireland 
it  was  neglected  till  1851.  In  that  year  it  was  taken,  and  also  in  1861, 
and,  I  suppose,  in  1871.  They  who  manage  the  census  in  Ireland 
deserve  great  credit  for  what  they  have  done,  and  they  make  Ireland 
contrast  most  favourably  with  the  other  Celtic -speaking  parts  of  the 
United  Kingdom. 

I  do  not  make  the  slightest  pretence  of  being  a  Hebrew  scholar ; 
in  the  case  of  nine  or  ten  words,  perhaps  some  who  are  Hebrew 
scholars  may  see  that  these  might  more  correctly  be  referred  to  other 
words  in  Hebrew,  instead  of  trying  to  find  distant  cousins  for  them  in 
Celtic. 

It  is  unnecessary  to  observe,  that  the  plan  of  cutting  off  the  first 
part  of  Hebrew  words  may  be  used  for  the  purpose  of  comparing 
Hebrew  with  other  tongues  besides  the  Celtic. 

As  possibly  these  pages  may  be  again  printed,  I  shall  be  glad  to 
receive,  addressed  to  myself,  any  corrections  or  suggestions  that  may 
occur  to  my  readers. 

Any  published  criticisms,  good-natured  or  otherwise,  will  be  care- 
fully attended  to. 


U,    Valletort  Terrace, 

Stoke, 

Deionport, 

May,  m-2. 


THE    AFFINITY 


THE   HEBREW   AND   THE   CELTIC. 


Early  in  the  year  1833  I  drew  up  a  short  Comparative  Vocabulary 
of  Hebrew  and  Gaelic.  In  1840  this  was  printed  at  the  end  of  my 
Comparative  Greek  and  Gaelic  Vocabulary.  In  1870  this  was  re- 
printed without  any  alteration.  After  1833  or  1810  I  did  not  look  into 
the  subject  again  till  November,  1871,  when  I  made  many  additions 
to  my  former  list.  On  this  occasion  (1872)  the  manner  of  spelling 
Hebrew  words  in  English  letters,  is  the  one  followed  by  Aaron  Pick  in 
that  work  of  great  ability  and  industry,  The  Bible-Student's  Concordance. 
(London:  Hamilton,  Adams  &  Co.     1845.     Pp.  590.) 

In  comparing  one  language  with  another,  there  are  two  questions 
to  be  considered;  first,  the  grammar  of  the  two  languages;  and, 
secondly,  the  separate  words  of  each. 

In  Hebrew  the  prepositions  are  incorporated  with  the  personal 
pronouns ;  the  same  is  done  in  Gaelic :  aig  (at)  and  other  fifteen 
prepositions  are  incorporated  with  the  personal  pronouns.  This  was 
pointed  out  by  Stewart  in  his  Gaelic  Grammar.  (Edinburgh,  1801; 
and  second  edition,  1812,  page  129.) 

Of  Hebrew  nouns  a  plural  termination  is  im  or  eem  ;  this  is  like 
the  Gaelic  Mo,  more. 

After  1833  or  1840  I  did  not  look  into  the  subject  again  till 
November,  1871.  After  a  few  days  I  made  a  discovery  that  gave  me 
a  key  to  word -analogies  I  had  not  previously  noticed.  I  found  that, 
after  taking  away  the  first  part  of  a  Hebrew  word,  the  next  syllable, 
or  the  next  two  syllables,  resembled  a  word  in  Gaelic.  In  this  word- 
dissection  there  is  taken  away  either — 

1 .  An  initial  vowel,  or 

2.  An  initial  vowel-sound,  or 

3.  An  initial  consonant,  or 

4.  An  initial  consonant  followed  by  a  vowel-sound. 


10  HEBREW    AND    GAELIC. 

There  are  about  four  hundred  and  fifty-two  Hebrew  words  which, 
after  being  treated  in  this  way,  are  like  Gaelic  words.  Under  the 
letter  aleph,  there  are  thirty-  nine  words ;  under  beth,  eight ;  under 
gimel,  fourteen ;  under  daleth,  twelve  ;  under  he,  fifteen ;  under  vov, 
none ;  under  zain,  nineteen ;  under  kheth,  twenty-seven  ;  under  teth, 
five ;  under  yod,  twenty-nine  ;  under  kaph,  thirteen  ;  under  lamed, 
ten ;  under  mem,  sixty-one ;  under  nun,  forty-three  ;  under  zamech, 
twenty-eight ;  under  ayin,  twenty- two;  under  pe,  six;  under  tsade 
(ts  prefixed),  fourteen;  under  tsade  (t  prefixed),  six;  under  koph, 
fifteen ;  under  resh,  two ;  under  shin  or  sin,  fifty-nine ;  and  under  the 
letter  tov,  fifteen  words. 

As  the  prefixing  of  a  vowel,  or  of  a  vowel-sound,  is  not  as  distinct 
as  the  prefixing  of  a  consonant,  I  show  separately  the  number  of 
words  (having  a  prefix)  beginning  with  —  aleph,  thirty-nine  words; 
he,  fifteen  ;  yod,  twenty-nine ;  ayin,  twenty-two;  in  all  one  hundred 
and  five;  leaving  three  hundred  and  forty-seven  words  beginning 
with  a  prefixed  consonant.  It  saves  repetition  to  speak  of  the  Hebrew 
prefixing  without  always  adding  or  the  Gaelic  omitting. 

In  the  following  pages  there  are  given  about  twelve  hundred  and 
seventy  Hebrew  words,  which  in  meaning  and  sound  are  like  words 
in  Gaelic.  This  is  four  hundred  and  fifty-two  words  having  a  non- 
Celtic  prefix,  and  eight  hundred  and  twenty  other  words. 

I  have  not  reckoned  the  whole  number  of  words  in  Hebrew  (to  be 
found  in  the  Hebrew  Old  Testament) ;  it  is  only  a  random  guess  that 
the  twelve  hundred  and  seventy  Hebrew  words  akin  to  Gaelic  are 
perhaps  about  one-fourth,  or  it  may  be  one-third,  of  all  the  words  in 
the  Hebrew  language. 

In  1833  I  noted  several  words  with  a  syllable  prefixed;  so  that  I 
was  then  nearly  making  the  discovery  which  I  did  not  make  till  1871. 
In  1833  I  gave  but  a  very  cursory  attention  to  the  subject,  being  then 
about  to  attend  medical  classes. 

In  this  comparison  of  Hebrew  with  the  Celtic,  only  one  branch  of 
the  Celtic  is  referred  to ;  namely,  the  Gaelic,  now  spoken  in  the 
Highlands  and  Western  Isles  of  Scotland.  The  words  quoted  may  be 
found  in  the  Gaelic  Dictionary  by  Macleod  and  Dewar.  (Glasgow, 
1831;  and,  second  edition,  Edinburgh,  1833.)  Any  remarks  here 
about  the  Gaelic  or  Scoto-Celtic  apply  equally  to  the  Irish  language, 
and  to  the  Manx.  By  referring  to  the  Welsh,  Cornish,  or  Armoric,  it 
is  likely  that  other  proofs  of  Hebrew-Celtic  linguistic  kinship  would 


HEBREW    AND     GAELIC.  11 

tie  found,  as  words  which  one  Celtic  dialect  may  have  lost  may  he 
preserved  in  another;  and  words  now  in  use  in  one  dialect  may  he 
capable  of  being  referred  to  roots  extant  only  in  another. 

A  derivation  or  a  case  of  word -affinity  is  sometimes  like  a  riddle  : 
it  is  very  easy  after  it  is  explained. 

The  Celtic  language  has  never  received  the  attention  its  antiquity 
and  importance  merit.  Ignorance  of  Celtic  has  always  characterised 
nearly  the  whole  of  the  Greek  and  Latin  scholars  of  Great  Britain 
and  Ireland :  this  ignorance  dates  so  far  back  that  it  may  be  called 
traditional.*  I  fancy  the  same  remark  may  be  made  respecting  the 
Hebrew  scholars  of  the  United  Kingdom.  Some  writers  pass  over 
the  subject  of  early  languages  without  any  reference  to  the  Celtic; 
and  others  seem  unwilling  to  admit  its  rights,  its  just  and  reasonable 
claims  to  consideration.  When  they  come  to  speak  of  the  Celtic,  from 
what  they  say,  it  is  clear  that  names,  some  of  considerable  learning, 
some  of  great  learning,  have  not  been  able  to  extricate  their  minds 
from  the  prejudices  in  which  they  were  brought  up. 

The  reader  unacquainted  with  Gaelic  is  requested  to  notice  that  bh 
and  mh  are  sounded  like  the  English  v ;  ph  like/:  c  andy  are  always 
hard  like  k.  On  some  occasions  en  and  gn  are  sounded  cr  and  gr.  At 
the  end  of  a  word  ch  is  like  eh  in  loch,  as  the  Scotch  pronounce  it ; 
d  and  t  when  followed  by  h  are  generally  silent :  in  some  cases  d  and 
t  are  retained  because  formerly  they  were  sounded ;  and  h  is  added  to 
show  that  now  they  are  not  pronounced.  These  few  remarks  are 
sufficient  for  the  purpose  of  derivation  or  word-comparison :  more 
minute  rules  are  to  be  found  in  Stewart's  Gaelic  Grammar,  and  in 
Macalpine's  Gaelic  Pronouncing  Dictionary. 

In  the  case  of  the  words  when  at  the  beginning  of  the  word  a 
syllable  is  either  added  in  Hebrew  or  omitted  in  Gaelic,  a  hyphen  is 
occasionally  used  in  an  arbitrary  way,  that  the  theory  offered  for  the 
consideration  of  the  reader  may  catch  the  eye  more  readily  :  it  would 
have  been  more  complete  to  have  used  the  hyphen  in  all  the  cases. 
The  Hebrew  words  are  given  first  in  the  line,  and  in  small  capitals ; 
the  Gaelic  words  are  given  in  Roman  letters. 

*  There  is  no  allusion  here  to  the  ministers  of  parishes  in  the  Highlands  and 
Hebrides,  or  other  clergymen  who  have  occasion  to  use  Gaelic  in  their  churches. 


HEBREW    AND     GAELIC. 


ALEPH. 


Aleph,  the  first  Hebrew  letter.  The  first  Gaelic  letter  is  called 
Ailm,  the  elm. 

Some  Hebrew  and  Gaelic  words  are  alike  in  meaning  and  sound, 
except  that  either  the  Hebrew  prefixes  a  vowel-sound,  or  the  Gaelic 
omits  an  initial  vowel :    of  this  there  are  about  thirty-eight  instances. 

A  conjectural  affinity  is  offered  for  the  consideration  of  the  reader  : 
some  Hebrew  and  Gaelic  words  are  alike  in  meaning  and  sound, 
except  that  an  initial  consonant  is  either  omitted  in  Hebrew,  or  added 
in  Gaelic. 

FIRST    GROUP. 

Hebrew  words  beginning  with  a  vowel,  or  a  vowel-sound,  and  Gaelic 

words  beginning  with  a  vowel : 
Ail,  God ;  compare  with  Gaelic  Ailt,  high. 
Ail,  mighty;  elouheem,  superior;  aliyoh,  an  upper  room  ;  al,  upon; 

ail,  an  arch  over  a  door:  Ailt,  high. 
Alouph,  a  head,  a  chief :  Alp,  high. 
Armotjn,  a  royal  citadel :  Ard,  high;  monadh,  a  hill. 
Argoz,  a  coffer,  a  box :  Aire,  a  chest. 
Omain,  amen,  so  be  it :  Amhuil,  amh-uil,  like. 
Omar,  omor,  say  :  Ahair,  say. 
Ov,  av,  a  father,  ancestor :  Ab  (obs.),  a  father. 
Aid,  mist  :  Ad  (obs.),  water;  or  dubh,  dark. 
Okhuz,  possession  :  Aig,  in  possession. 
Akh,  but :  Ach,  but. 
Ameeth,   an   associate:    Amhuil,  amh-uil,   like;    or  comh,   together; 

c  omitted. 
Apheek,  a  stream  :  Abh,  water. 

Agom,  a  pond :  ag  like  aig  in  Aigeal,  a  pool,  and  aigeann,  a  pool. 
Akzor,  cruel :  Aicear,  cruel. 
Eleel,  an  idol;  aileem,  images:  like  the  second  syllable  of  Amhuil, 

amh-uil,  like. 
Oor,  to  lighten,  to  illuminate ;  our,  oor,  light:  Ear,  the  east  (break  of 

day) ;  also  like  brath,  fire  ;  b  omitted. 
Oukheem,  howling  animals  :  Eigh,  a  ciy/. 
Ee,  an  island :  I,  an  island. 
Olakh,  corrupted :  Olc,  wicked. 
Olaph,  to  teach:  Ollamh,  a  learned  person. 


ALEPH.  13 

Othoh,  to  come  :  Uidhe,  a  step,  a  journey. 

Okh,  alas;  ee,  mourning :  Och,  alas.  Gaelic  is  very  partial  to  the 
sound  ch  at  the  end  of  a  word  when  apparently  it  might  be 
dispensed  with,  as  tula,  a  hill,  which  also  appears  in  the  form 
tulach. 

Umlal,  to  languish  :  Umhal,  meek. 

Eshed,  a  torrent :  esh  like  Uisge,  uis-ge,  water. 

Areeth  (Chaldee),  earth;  erets,  artsouth,  land,  earth,  country:  Uir, 
earth.  Also  like  the  Gaelic  ruadh,  red.  The  Gaelic  word  for 
earth  is  akin  to  the  word  for  redness.     See  under  adomoh. 

Akhar,  after ;  akhourai,  the  hinder  parts;  akhotjraneeth,  back 
again;  akhareeth,  latter,  last;  akhair,  another,  from  akhar, 
after  :  Iar,  after  ;  kh  prefixed  ;  and  then  a  prefixed. 

Ovav,  unripe :  Amh,  crude,  raw. 

second   group. 
Either  a  vowel-sound  prefixed  in  Hebrew,  or  an  initial  vowel  omitted 

in  Gaelic. 
Arbeer,  mighty  :  abeer,  a-beer,  might,  like  the  Gaelic  Mor,  great. 
Aph,  anger  ;  aivoh,  enmity :  Fuath,  hatred. 
Aipher,  ashes  :  Brath,  fire. 
Aiphailoh,  th  ick  darkness  :  Feile,  a  covering. 
Ad,  to,  unto  :  Do,  to. 

Ain,  not;  ayin,  not;  oyin,  not :  Neo,  not. 
Attoh,  thou  :  Du,  thou. 
Ashair,  to  arrange  :  Sreath,  a  row. 
Agvoh,  affection  ;  the  gv  like  Caomh,  beloved. 
Aithox,  stubborn,  irresistible :  Dian,  vehement,  violent. 
Atil,  a  stone  side-post :  perhaps  like  Lia,  a  stone. 
Agol,  a  round  drop  (see  under  Gol) :  Calbh,  a  head ;  the  idea  is  some- 
thing round. 
Egrouph,  a  fist :  Cior  (obs.),  a  hand. 
Evroh,  wrath  :  Fearg,  anger. 
Idrai  (Chaldee),  an  earthen  floor  :  Tir,  earth. 
Ovod,  lose:  Bho,  from  (the  preposition  turned  into  a  verb). 
Odoun,  a  lord,  a  master :  Tanaiste,  tan-aiste,  a  lord,  a  thane. 
Ophoh,  to  bake:  Biadh, food. 
Omeer,  foliage :  Barr,  the  top  (say  of  a  tree). 
Ogav,  to  fall  in  love  with  :  Caomh,  beloved. 

Otjv,  a  spirit  of  divination  ;  v  like  Faidh,  a  prophet ;  ou  prefixed. 
Ovail,  waste  ground :  Falamh,  empty;  hence  the  word  fallow. 


14  HEBREW    AND     GAELIC. 

Orakh,  to  lengthen;  erekh,  long:  Ruig,  extend. 

Okhal,  to  devour,  eat  up :  perhaps  akin  to  Caol,  narrow  (whence  perhaps 

a  name  for  the  gullet). 
Ouphel,  thick  darkness  :  Feile,  a  covering. 
Ashoor,  a  course,  an  open  space :  Srath,  a  valley  through  which  a  river 

runs,  any  low-lying-  country  along  a  river,  a  strath,  as  Strathtay,  &c. 
Ikkar,  a  ploughman ;  kar  like  Gearr,  cut;  cut  through  the  ground. 
Okhain,  surely  so;  akin  to  Hebrew  koon,  to  fix,  to  erect;  kan,  a  basis, 

a  jiedestal;  konas,  konash,  to  gather  into  a  place  of  security  (under 

the  letter  kaph) :  under  the  letter  koph,  see  kan,  a  nest;  konan, 

to  make  a  nest:  under  the  letter  kheth,  see  khonoh,  to  encamp; 

under  the  letter  shin,  see  shekhan,   a  resting-place:   also  see 

makhaneh,  a  camp ;  MEK.HOUNOH,  a  foundation ;   gan,  a  garden; 

gonan,    to    enclose;    tekhouxoh,    establishment,    estate,   property; 

nokhoun,  certain,  fixed;  hokain,  established.     All  these  Hebrew 

words  are  akin  to  each  other,  and  to  the  Gaelic  Comhnuidh, 

comhn-uidh,  a  dwelling:  an  comhnuidh,  continually. 
Emounoh,  e-moun-oh,^r»?;  aimun,  a.i-mun,  faith,  belief,  truth:  Bun, 

foundation;  b  to  in. 
Ogar,  to  lay  up  a  store,  as  of  provisions :    Cuir,  set,  place ;  or  Cro, 

a  hut,  a  house,  an  enclosure. 
Erez,  cedar,  a  red  wood:  perhaps  akin  to  Ruadh,  red. 
Agartol  (Chaldee),  a  basin,  a-gar-tol:  Cro,  anything  round. 
Aid,  calamity;  c?  like  Dith,  want,  destruction;  ai  prefixed. 
Even,  a  stone :  perhaps  akin  to  Ban,  white.     In  Gaelic,  lia  is  a  stone, 

and  lia,  liath,  is  grey :  the  name  for  stones  applied  to  the  colour, 

or  the  name  for  the  colour  applied  to  stones. 
Agereth  (Chaldee),  a  letter:  Sgriob,  a  line;   sgriobh,  write;   these 

two  words  from  garbh,  rough. 
Aikh,  how:  Ce,  who;  cia,  what;  ai  prefixed. 
Agoudoh,  a  bunch  :  Cath,  a  company. 

third  group. 

An  initial  consonant  is  either  omitted  in  Hebrew,  or  added  in  Gaelic : 
this  is  a  conjecture  offered  for  the  consideration  of  the  reader. 
See  the  third  group  under  the  letter  he,  the  third  group  under  the 
letter  ayin,  and  the  second  group  under  the  letter  yod. 

Othoh,  to  become:  perhaps  like  Bi,  bith,  to  be;  b  omitted. 

Oxiyoh,  a  ship  :  Long,  a  ship  ;  I  omitted. 

Oloh,  to  denounce:  Beul,  the  mouth;  b  omitted. 

Olats,  to  compel:  Buail,  strike ;  b  omitted. 


ALEPH.  15 

Oor,  our,  light :  Brath,  afire;  b  omitted. 

Ouloji,  a  porch :  perhaps  like  Beul,  mouth  (the  mouth  of  the  house) ; 
b  omitted. 

Osar,  to  fetter :  perhaps  like  Cos,  afoot;  c  omitted. 

Onak,  to  sigh  :  Caoin,  lament;  c  omitted. 

Orav,  to  lie  in  wait :  Cruh,  crouch  ;  c  omitted. 

Ahavoh,  love;  ohav,  to  love;  ivvoh,  to  desire:  Caomh,  beloved; 
c  omitted. 

Aniyoh,  suffering  pain :  Caoin,  lament,  groan ;  c  omitted. 

Eelox  (Chaldee),  a  tree;  ailoun,  a  grove  of  oaks:  Coille,  wood; 
c  omitted. 

Onoosh,  helpless,  feeble :  Faoin,  idle,  unavailing ;  /omitted. 

Aits,  a  tree,  wood;  oe  (Chaldee),  wood,  timber;  oo  (Syriac),  timber; 
Fiodh,  wood;  /omitted. 

Arbeh,  ar-beh,  a  grasshopper  ;  ar  like  Feur,  grass;  /omitted. 

Ouhel,  a  tent:  Feile,  a  covering ;  /omitted. 

Aith,  a  coulter;  ait,  an  iron  pen  :  perhaps  akin  to  Gath,  a  dart,  &c. 
(the  idea  is  cutting) ;  g  omitted. 

Okh,  a  brother;  akhouth,  a  sister :  perhaps  akin  to  Mac,  a  son  ; 
m  omitted.  A  group  who  are  brothers  to  each  other,  are  the  sons 
of  one  person ;  and  a  group  of  the  sons  of  one  man,  are  each 
other's  brothers.  In  a  very  early  state  of  society  the  ideas  about 
relationship,  and  the  names  for  it,  were  not  very  clear.  See  Sir 
John  Lubbock's  Origin  of  Civilization,  1870,  page  50. 

Aimoh,  dread :  Tioma,  afraid;  t  omitted. 

Aisu,  fire;  aizaih  (Syriac),  heat:  Teas,  heat;  t  omitted. 

Odom,  earthy,  name  of  the  first  man  (Adam);  adomoh,  red  earth; 
admoh,  earthy;  orDEM,  a  ruby ;  perhaps  od  like  Ruadh,  red; 
r  omitted. 

Onoo,  we  :  Sinn,  us ;  s  omitted. 

Adai,  ever;  ad,  for  ever  :  Sith,  continually  ;  s  omitted. 

FOURTH    GROUP. 

Almoxoh,  al-monoh,  a  widow:  perhaps  like  Mnaoi,  a  woman. 
Albeen,  to  be  whiter  :  Ban,  white. 

BETH. 

Beth  is  the  second  Hebrew  letter :  there  is  an  idea  that  it  received 
its  name  from  Beth  or  bayith,  a  house,  representing  a  tent,  the 
primitive  house  of  early  tribes,  its  form  being  like  the  shape  of  a 
tent.     Hebrew  Bayith,  a  house,  is  like  Gaelic  Buth,  a  pavilion,  booth  ; 


16  HEBREW    AND    GAELIC. 

Lowland- Scotch,  bothy.  The  second  Gaelic  letter  is  called  Beith,  the 
birch  tree. 

Some  Hebrew  and  Gaelic  words  are  alike  in  meaning  and  sound, 
except  that  an  initial  b  is  either  added  in  Hebrew  or  omitted  in  Gaelic  ; 
either  b,  or  b  followed  by  a  vowel-sound. 

Some  Hebrew  and  Gaelic  words  are  alike  in  meaning  and  sound, 
except  that  either  the  Hebrew  omits  an  initial  vowel-sound,  or  the 
Gaelic  prefixes  a  vowel. 

FIRST    GROUP. 

Words  which  begin  with  b  in  both  languages. 

Boash,  to  corrupt,  to  rot ;  akin  to  Bas,  death. 

Beoudee,  existing  :  Bith,  to  be. 

Bolak,  to  lay  waste  :  Buail,  smite. 

Bolag,  to  stir  up  :  Buail,  strike. 

Baal,  a  master;  bohal,  to  terrify;  belyial,  belial,  a  wicked  person: 
perhaps  akin  to  Beal,  the  god  Belus,  or  Bel. 

Ben,  a  structure,  a  building;  Bonoh,  to  build:  Bun,  a  foundation. 

Bayith,  a  house  :  Buth,  a  tent,  a  pavilion,  a  bothy. 

Beeroh,  the  residence  of  royalty:  Buth,  a  house;  righ,  a  king. 

Betouv,  in  good  spirits  :  Buidheach,  well  pleased. 

Baar,  ignorant,  stupid;  vaar,  an  ignorant  man  :  Borb,  savage. 

Bola,  to  swallow;  boleel,  a  mixture  of  fodder :  Beul,  the  mouth. 

Botsaik,  dough;  bot  like  Biaih,  food. 

Beroush,  on,  at  the  head  of:  Barr,  top. 

Boro,  to  create:  Beir,  to  bring  forth,  to  produce. 

Bar,  a  son:  Bar  (obs.),  a  son,  like  the  Gaelic  beir. 

Beair,  a  well,  a  cavity :  Bior  (obs.),  a  well,  a  fountain;  water. 

Bour,  a  pit;  boar,  to  dear  away,  to  extirpate;  beraikhoh,  a  pool  of 
water  :  Bior,  also  like  bruid,  dig. 

Boar,  to  destroy:  Bruth,  bruise,  crush;  or  brath, ^re. 

Bouhen,  a  thumb  ;  akin  to  Bonn,  the  sole  of  the  foot. 

Compare  with  Latin  penes,  in  one's  hand,  or  possession.  The  Latin 
words  penes,  pinna,  penna,  sculponea  (scul-ponea),  and  manus 
(here  b  to  m)  are  akin  to  the  Gaelic  bonn.  Speaking  anatomi- 
cally, hands  (or  arms  and  hands),  feet  (or  legs  and  feet),  wings, 
and  fins,  are  the  equivalents  of  each  other. 

Bath,  a  measure  of  liquids  :  Bath,  quench,  drown. 

Bad,  a  long  branch,  a  pole  :  Bat,  a  staff. 

Bittoh,  to  speak  unadvisedly :  Baoth,  foolish. 

Borakh,  to  run  :  Bruchd,  to  rush  forth. 


BETH.  17 

Basam,  a  spice;  bas  like  Bus,  the  mouth. 

Bef.roniyouth  (Chaldee),  castles :  Barr,  a  height;  beam,  a  hill. 

Voxouth,  daughters :     Bean,  a  woman. 

Veain,  without :  Hho,  from. 

Botsa,   to  gain,  to  profit ;   betsa,  gain,  profit :   Buadh,  gain,  success, 

victory. 
Beephes,  without  measure  ;  like  Bho,  from  ;  meas,  estimation. 
Boair,  a  blaze,  aflame ;  biair,  to  clear  up,  to  consume;  boar,  to  blaze,  to 

flame;    bohar,    to   brighten;    borar,    to  purify ;    boroor,  pure; 

boroh,  pure;  bar,  pure;  borak,  to  glitter;  voor,  purity ;  borok., 

lightning;     boreketh,    a    glittering    stone;     beree,    brightness; 

bahareth,  a  bright  spot :  Br&th,  fire. 
Bokhoh,  to  bewail :  Beuc,  an  outcry. 

Barzel,  iron  ;  perhaps  from  being  prepared  by  fire  :  Brath,  fire. 
Bokhoun,  a  watch-tower :  Beachd,  vision;  oun  like  dun  (in  composition 

un),  a  hill. 
Bakoshoh,  a  petition,  hence  bakshish  ;   bikhaish,  to  request :   Beuc, 

beuchd,  an  outcry,  a  clamour  (beuc  like  focal,  foc-al,  a  word). 

second    group. 
An  initial  b  is  either  added  in  Hebrew  or  omitted  in  Gaelic ;  either  b, 

or  b  followed  by  a  vowel-sound. 
Bokor,  bo-kor,  horned  cattle ;  like  Crodh,  cattle ;  also  like  bo,  an  ox; 

corn,  a  horn. 
Bokhar,  bo-khar,  to  choose;  perhaps  like  Cior  (obs.),  the  hand  (to  take). 
Bikhroh,  b-ikh-roh,  a  dromedary:  ikh  like  Each,  a  horse;  roh  like 

ruith,  to  run  (a  swift  horse). 
Bolam,  bo-lam,  to  restrain  :  Lamh,  the  hand  (suppose  to  hold). 
Bou,  to  come,  to  enter  ;  bo,  to  come  :  Uidhe,  a  step. 
Boo  (Syriac),  to  petition  :  Eigh,  earnest  entreaty. 
Bots\r,  b-ot-sar,  to  heap  up  earth  or  stones  :  At,  a  swelling,  a  heap. 
Beten,  b-et-en,  the  abdomen  :  At,  a  prominence. 

third  group. 
Bereeth,  a  covenant;  biair,  to  define:  Abair,  say;  a  omitted.     The 

Gaelic  bard,  a  poet,  akin  to  abair. 
Borod,  hail :  Fuar,  cold;  f  to  b. 

Bozaz,  to  plunder;  bouzaiz,  a  plunderer :  Fas,  to  lay  waste  ;  /to  b. 
Bogad,  to  be  faithless,  bog-ad:  Fag,  to  leave;  /to  b. 
Balot,  wrapped  up:  Fill,  fold ;  feile,  a  covering ;  /to  b. 
Bitto,  to  pronounce :  Faidh,  a  prophet ;  /to  b. 


18  HEBREW    AND     GAELIC. 

Beoud,  as  long :  Fad,  long;  /to  b. 
Beenoh,  under -standing :  Mein,  mind;  m  to  b. 
Bain,  between:  Meadhon,  middle;  m  to  b. 

Bollal,  to  mix,  to  confuse;  boloh,  to  wear  out:  Moil,  grind;  m  to  b. 
Boosh,  shame  :  Masladh,  mas-ladh,  shame  ;  m  to  b. 
Booz,  contempt:  Masladh,  reproach;  m  to  b. 

Boos,  to  tread  upon  ;  voos,  to  tread  upon :  like  Greek  pous,  Latin  pet 
afoot;  like  Gaelic  Cos,  afoot;  c  top. 


GIMEL. 

The  third  Hehrcw  letter.  From  a  fancied  resemblance  to  the 
figure  of  a  camel,  it  is  thought  that  this  letter  derived  its  name  from 
Gomol,  a  camel.  The  Gaelic  carnal,  a  camel,  is  derived  from  cam, 
crooked ;  al,  horse. 

Some  Hebrew  and  Celtic  words  are  alike  in  meaning  and  sound, 
except  that  either  the  Hebrew  prefixes  g,  or  the  Celtic  omits  initial 
c  or  g ;  either  g,  or  g  followed  by  a  vowel-sound. 

FIRST    GROUP. 

Words  which  begin  with  g  in  Hebrew,  and  with  c  or  g  in  Gaelic. 

Gan,  a  garden  ;  gonan,  to  enclose,  fence,  protect.  Under  the  letter  kheth, 
see  khonoh,  to  encamp:  under  the  letter  kaph,  see  koon,  to  erect ; 
kan,  a  basis :  konas,  konash,  to  gather  into  a  place  of  security  : 
under  the  letter  koph,  see  kan,  a  nest :  konan,  to  make  a  nest : 
also  see  makhaneh,  a  camp.  Of  all  these,  the  idea  is  an  enclosure. 
Also  see  tekhocnoh,  establishment,  estate,  property;  tikhoun, 
established:  shekhan,  a  resting-place  :  mekhounoh,  a  foundation, 
a  base.  All  these  Hebrew  words  are  akin  to  each  other,  and  to 
the  Gaelic  Comhnuidh,  comhn-uidh,  a  dwelling. 

Goou,  to  dwell;  gair,  a  sojourner;  gairootii,  a  temporary  dwelling: 
Cro,  a  hut,  a  cottage. 

Gook,  to  frighten:  Crith,  shake  with  fear. 

Geres,  to  grind:  Croc,  beat,  pound. 

Goloh,  to  discover,  to  reveal:  Glaodh,  to  call  (also  like  sgeul,  a  tale; 
s  omitted). 

Gooh,  to  bellow  :  Guth,  a  voice. 

Goram,  to  break  to  pieces;  gora,  to  clip,  to  diminish;  goraz,  to  hew 
dou-n ;  gorar,  to  saw;  garzen,  a  small  axe,  a  hatchet:  Gearr,  cut. 

Gab,  a  back,  convex  surface,  eminence;  givoul,  risen  in  body,  ripe :  Cab, 
a  head. 


GIMEL.  19 

Gevoul,  a  border  of  territory;  goval,  to  border,  to  partition  (the  idea  is 
something  raised);  from  Hebrew  gab;  also  like  Gaelic  Balla, 
a  wall ;  ge  prefixed. 

Govoh,  a  hill;  govoh,  to  heighten;  govah,  high;  gaavoh.  pride; 
GETOUHA,  high;  gibbaix,  a  humpback :  Cab,  a  head 

Gibbour,  a  mighty  one,  a  giant:  Cab,  a  head;  our  like  fear  (in  com- 
position— ear),  a  man. 

Goulee,  a  captive;  golooth,  captivity;  goloh,  to  drive  captive:  Gille, 
a  lad,  a  servant,  a  gilly  (the  g  hard),  a  ghilly. 

Geer,  chalk;  geero  (Syriac),  plaster :  Cre,  earth. 

Geesh,  a  clod;  perhaps  like  Ce,  earth. 

Gav,  vaulted,  arched:  Cam,  bent. 

Gouv,  a  den;  like  Hebrew  gav;  also  like  Gaelic  Uamh,  a  cave; 
g  prefixed. 

Geve,  a  cistern;  like  Hebrew  gav;  also  like  Gaelic  Gabh,  take,  receive. 

Gouveem,  diggers,  husbandmen  :  Ce,  the  ground. 

Gorar,  to  stir  up,  to  provoke  :  Geur,  sharp. 

Gorad,  to  scratch  :  Gearr,  cut;  geur,  sharp;  garhh,  rough. 

Gorov,  scurvy:  perhaps  like  Garbh,  rough. 

Goroun,  the  throat:  perhaps  like  Garbh,  rough,  hard. 

Geled,  a  covering :  Cleidh,  hide,  conceal. 

Gomol,  a  camel:  Carnal,  a  camel ;  cam,  crooked;  al  (obs.),  a  horse.  The 
fitting-in  of  two  Gaelic  words  to  form  carnal  is  perhaps  accidental. 

Golal,  to  roll;  gilgol,  the  globe,  a  wheel;  gullah,  a  bowl;  golam,  to 
fold  up;  ogeel,  a  ring;  gulgoi/letii,  a  skull;  gulloii,  a  cup; 
gilyouneem,  a  head-dress ;  agoleem,  round  drops;  golam,  a  large 
loose  garment  round  the  person ;  gol,  a  heap  of  stones :  with  all 
these  there  is  connected  the  idea  of  roundness,  like  Gaelic  Calbh, 
a  head. 

Godah,  to  cut  down  ;  in  meaning  a  little  like  Gath,  a  sting,  a  dart,  &c, 
the  idea  being  something  penetrating. 

Gedoud,  a  troop :  Cath,  a  company  of  soldiers. 

Gomo,  to  sup  up :  Gabh,  take,  receive. 

Gaviah,  a  cup:  Cub,  bend  (the  idea  being  something  hollow). 

SECOND     GROUP. 

An  initial  g  is  either  added  in  Hebrew  or  omitted  in  Gaelic  ;  either  g 

or  g  followed  by  a  vowel-sound  :  about  fourteen  instances. 
Gohar,  g-ohar,  to  breathe :  Athar,  air. 
Gov  a,  g-ova,  to  waste  away,  to  dissolve:  Abh,  water. 
Gephex,  ge-phen,  a  vine  :  Fion,  wine. 


20  HEBREW    AND    GAELIC. 

Golakh,  go-lakh,  to  share  (the  idea  is  to  make  smooth) :  Leae,  a  flat 

stone  (hence  cromlech). 
Geyooroh,  ge-vooroh,  great  strength ;  gever,  ge-ver,  a  man  of  strength  ; 

gevereth,  ge-vereth,  a  female  in  power :  Mor,  great;  or  barr,  top. 
Goraph,  go-raph,  to  carry  off,  to  seize :  Reub,  tear. 
Gozar,  go-zar,  to  cut;  gezairoh,  cut  off,  separated :  Searr,  cut. 
Godal,    go-dal,    to   elevate;     godoul,   great,    tall;    goudel,    gou-del, 

greatness:  Tula,  a  hill. 
Gouv,  g-ouv  (Chaldee),  a  den:  Uamh,  a  cave. 

third  group. 
An  initial  s  is  either  omitted  in  Hebrew  or  added  in  Gaelic. 
Goloh,  to  discover,  to  reveal:  like  Glaodh,  call;  but  also  like  Sgeul, 
a  tale.  Under  the  letter  kaph,  see  Hebrew  konoph,  kon-oph,  like 
Gaelic  Sgiathan.  Under  the  letter  koph,  see  Hebrew  koot,  like 
Gaelic  Sgeith ;  Hebrew  kee,  like  Gaelic  Sgeith ;  Hebrew  kain, 
like  Gaelic  Sgian  :  instances  where  s  is  similarly  treated. 


DALETH. 

The  fourth  Hebrew  letter.  It  was  so  named  from  being  in  shape 
like  the  opening  into  a  tent  (akin  to  Gaelic  Toll,  a  hole).  Irom  deleth 
comes  delta,  the  name  of  the  fourth  Greek  letter :  the  shape  of  this 
is  exactly  that  of  the  opening  into  a  tent ) 

Some  Hebrew  and  Gaelic  words  are  alike  in  meaning  and  sound, 
except  that  an  initial  d  is  either  added  in  Hebrew  or  omitted  in  Gaelic ; 
either  d  or  d  followed  by  a  vowel-sound. 

FIRST    GROUP. 

Words  which  begin  with  d  in  Hebrew,  and  with  d  or  t  in  Gaelic. 

Daleth,  the  name  of  the  fourth  Hebrew  letter;  deleth,  the  opening  into 
a  tent;  and  then  applied  to  the  door  itself;  a  lid :  Toll,  a  hole. 

Doom,  to  be  silent,  to  be  dumb;  domam,  to  be  silent;  domoh,  to  silence; 
domee,  quietness:  Tamh,  rest,  quietness.  From  the  Celtic  Tamh, 
the  rivers  Tay,  Thames,  Tamar,  Tavy,  and  other  streams  take 
their  name,  the  idea  being  a  smoothly- flowing  river. 

Domoh,  to  silence;  metaphorically  to  cut  off,  to  slag.  It  may  be  the 
same  word  as  the  above,  but  also  like  Teum,  cut,  cut  off. 

Dkyou,  ink:  Dubh,  ink. 

Dovak,  to  cleave  to :  perhaps  like  Do,  to  (the  preposition  turned  into  a 
verb). 


HE.  21 

Derekh,  a  way:  Dircaeh,  straight;  or  rach,  go;  d  prefixed. 

Deshen,  ashes;  doshan,  to  cleanse  from  ashes:  Teas,  heat. 

Doth,  an  edict;  doth  (Chaldee),  law:  Dith,  condemn. 

Dol,  exhausted,  poor;  dalloh,  exhaustion:  Duile,  a  mournful,  helpless 

creature. 
Dolakh,  to  disturb,  to  trouble :  Diulich,  difficult. 
Doyaik,  a  wooden  turret  or  shed  used  in  besieging  towns,  and  under  which 

the  besiegers  were  able  to  approach  the  walls :  Tigh,  teach,  a  house. 

second  group. 
An  initial  d  is  either  added  in  Hebrew  or  omitted  in  Gaelic ;  either  d, 

or  d  followed  by  a  vowel-sound. 
Dad,  a  nipple,  a  teat :  At,  a  swelling,  a  prominence. 
Dibbair,  d-ibbair,  to  speak;  dovor,  a  word:  Abair,  say. 
Domoh,  to  compare;  demooth,  likeness:  Amhuil,  amh-uil,  like. 
Doag,  to  be  troubled,  anxious;  DOKHAL(Syriac),  to  fear  ;  daagoh,  anxiety: 

Eagal,  fear. 
Douver,  dou-ver,  a  pasture:  Feur,  grass. 
Dogar,  do-gar,  to  cherish :  Gradh,  lore. 
Dokar,  do-kar,  to  thrust  through:  Gearr,  cut. 
Dorakh,  do-rakh,  to  tread:  Each,  go. 
Derour,  de-rour,  flowing :  Ruith,  flow. 

THIRDLY. 

Dolaph,  dol-aph,   to  drop   like  water,  like  Latin  stillo,   which  like 
Sil,  drop. 

HE. 

The  fifth  Hebrew  letter. 

Some  Hebrew  and  Gaelic  words  are  alike  in  meaning  and  sound, 
except  that  an  initial  h  is  either  added  in  Hebrew  or  omitted  in  Gaelic  ; 
either  h,  or  h  followed  by  a  vowel-sound. 

FIRST    GROUP. 

An  initial  h  is  either  added  in  Hebrew  or  omitted  in  Gaelic. 
Hoo,  he:  E,  he. 
Hee,  she :  I,  she. 
Hai,  the:  A,  the. 

Hoh,  an  exclamation  :  Eigh,  a  shout,  a  cry. 

Houee,  alas;  hoee,  alas ;  hoh,  alas;  hee,  woe:  Och,  alas.     Gaelic  is 
partial  to  the  sound  ch,  as  is  seen  in  tulach,  a  hill,  from  tula,  a  hill. 


•11  HEBREW    AND     GAELIC. 

Hillail,  to  praise:  AlLadh,  praise,  renown. 

Houlail,  mad,  raging :  Alluidh,  wild. 

Heeloh,  to  bring  up:  Al,  nourish. 

Horag,  to  kill:  Ar,  kill. 

Hogoh,  to  utter ;  hegeh,  utterance:  Eigh,  a  shout,  or  guth,  a  voice. 

Hohaim,  the  same,  like :  Amhuil,  amh-uil,  like. 

Horas,  to  throw  down  ;  perhaps  like  Uir,  the  ground. 

Haireem,  raise  up:  Ard,  high;  or  beir,  support;  b  omitted. 

Horizouth,  a  pregnant  woman;  horoh,  to  conceive;  perhaps  Ard;  or 

beir,  to  take  hold. 
Hor,  a  mount,  a  mountain;  like  Ard,  high;  ord,  a  hill. 
Haisheev,  to  bring  back :  Ais,  back,  backwards  ;  aisig,  return. 
Hooseeph,  to  add  to,  to  increase:  Ais  (obs.),  a  hill. 
Haiaiz,  to  strengthen:  Ais  (obs.),  a  stronghold. 

second    group. 

An  initial  he  is  either  added  in  Hebrew  or  omitted  in  Gaelic. 
Hophair,  ho-phair,  to  destroy:  Bruth,  bruise;  or  hraih.,  fire. 
Hocar,  ho-car,  to  be  perverse :  Car,  a  turn. 
Hokhain,  ho-khain,  established:  Comhnuidh,  a  dwelling. 
Hikhoth,  bi-khoth,  to  strike,  to  smite:  Gath,  a  dart. 
Ho veen,  bo-veen,  to  cause  to  understand :  Mein,  mind. 
Haikol,  hai-kol,  a  temple ;  kol  perhaps  akin  to  Cladh,  a  mound,  a  dyke 

a  trench;  also  perhaps  akin  to  clacban,  a  village. 
Haskail,  ha-skail,  prudence;   hiskeel  hi-skeel,  to  be  prudent:   Ciall, 

sense;  s  prefixed;  ha  prefixed. 

THIRD    GROUP. 

An  initial  consonant  is  either  omitted  in  Hebrew  or  added  in  Gaelic  ; 
this  is  a  conjecture  offered  for  the  consideration  of  the  reader.  See 
the  third  group  under  the  letter  aleph,  the  third  group  under  the 
letter  ayin,  and  the  second  group  under  the  letter  yod. 

Hoyoh,  to  be:  perhaps  Bi,  bith,  to  be;  b  omitted. 

Holam,  to  strike :  Buail,  strike;  b  omitted. 

Holam,  to  place  at  a  distance:  Buail,  throw ;  b  omitted. 

Horas,  to  break  down:  Bris,  break;  b  omitted. 

Homoh,  to  make  a  noise:  Fuaim,  noise;  /omitted. 

Hounoh,  to  defraud:  Faoin,  vain,  empty;  /omitted. 

Holakh,  h-ol-akh,  to  walk:  Falbh,  go  ;  /omitted. 

Hovoh,  to  give:  Gabh,  take;  g  omitted. 

Hodad,  to  shout;  hod  like  Guth,  a  voice;  g  omitted. 

Haresah,  a  ruinous  place :  Garbh,  rough,  rugged;  g  omitted. 


VAU— ZAIN.  23 

VOV   or  VAU. 
The  sixth  Hehrew  letter. 

V  as  a  vowel,  as  U,  again ;  like  Gaelic  Ath,  again.  The  Gaelic  ath, 
again,  perhaps  akin  to  Gaelic  da,  two. 

ZAIN. 

The  seventh  Hebrew  letter. 

Some  Hebrew  and  Gaelic  words  are  alike  in  meaning  and  sound, 
except  that  either  the  Hebrew  prefixes  z,  or  the  Gaelic  omits  this  sound 
at  the  beginning  of  a  word ;  either  z,  or  z  followed  by  a  vowel-sound. 

FIRST    GROUP. 

Hebrew  words  beginning  with  z,  and  Gaelic  words  beginning 
with  s. 
Zonov,  a  tail:  perhaps  like  Sin,  extend. 
Zeroua,  an  arm;   Zoroh,   to  scatter,  spread  abroad:   Sreath,  a  row, 

a  line. 
Zeh,  this:  So,  this. 
Zor,  strange,  excluded:  perhaps  like  As,  out,  out  of. 

SECOND     GROUP. 

Either  initial  z  is  added  in  Hebrew,  or  a  similar  sound  is  omitted  in 

Gaelic  ;  either  z,  or  z  followed  by  a  vowel-sound. 
Zokar,  to  remember:   Cridhe  (pronounced  cri),  the  heart:   the  heart 

figuratively  supposed  to  be  the  seat  of  the  mind. 
Zoak,  to  erg  out :  Eigh,  a  shout. 
Zoram,  to  overflow:  Ruith,^ow. 
Zov,  flowing,  running  :  Abb,  water. 
Zood,  to  seethe:  Ad  (obs.),  water. 
Zooh,  sweat:  O  (obs.),  water;  z  prefixed. 
Zokaph,  to  raise  up  :  Gabh,  take. 
Zorakh,  to  rise  as  the  sun:  Eirich,  rise. 
Zaaph,   violent  rage;    zoaph,   to   enrage;    za  prefixed,    perhaps  like 

Fuath,  rage. 
Zeekouth,  sparks:  Gath,  a  rag  of  light. 
Zomar,  to  chant;  z  prefixed:    omar  like  Abair,  sag  (the  Gaelic  can 

signifies  to  sag,  to  sing;  hence  Latin  cano). 
Zokain,  zo-kain,  an  old  man:  perhaps  like  Can  (obs),  white;  or  like 

Sean,  old;  a  k  or  c  lost  in  Celtic. 


24  HEBREW    AND     GAELIC. 

Zokh,  clear;  zokhoh,  to  make  clean,  to  wash;  zokhoo, purity;  zokak, 
to  cleanse;  zeekhooketh,  crystal,  glass;  zoakh,  to  extinguish, 
suppose  to  pour  water  over;  z  prefixed:  okh  like  aig  in  Gaelic 
Aigeann,  the  sea,  and  aigeal,  a  pool  (hence  Latin  aqua). 

KHETH. 

The  eighth  Hehrew  letter.  In  sound  like  the  Greek  chi,  or  like  ch 
in  loch  as  the  Scotch  pronounce  it.  Like  ch  hard.  Here  represented 
by  kh. 

Some  Hebrew  and  Gaelic  words  are  alike  in  meaning  and  sound, 
except  that  either  the  Hebrew  prefixes  kh,  or  the  Gaelic  omits  c  or  g 
at  the  beginning  of  a  word.  Hebrew  is  partial  to  this  sound  at  the 
beginning  of  a  word,  and  Gaelic  at  the  end  of  a  word. 

FIRST    GROUP. 

Hebrew  words  beginning  with  kh,  and  Gaelic  words  beginning  with 
c  or  g. 

Khonoh,  to  encamp;  khanu youth,  places  of  rest.  Under  the  letter 
kaph,  see  koon,  to  erect;  kan,  a  basis,  a  pedestal ;  konas,  konash, 
to  gather  into  a  place  of  security :  under  the  letter  koph,  see  kan, 
a  nest;  konan,  to  make  a  nest :  under  the  letter  shin,  see  shekhan, 
a  resting-place:  also  see  makhaneh,  a  camp;  gan,  a  garden; 
gonan,  to  enclose;  mekhounoh,  a  foundation,  a  base;  nokhoun, 
certain,  fixed ;  hokhain,  established;  okhain,  surely  so. 
Of  khonoh,  konas,  gonan,  and  konan,  the  idea  is  an  enclosure. 
All  these  Hebrew  words  are  akin  to  each  other,  and  to  the  Gaelic 
Comhnuidh,  comhn-uidh,  a  dwelling :  An  comhnuidh,  habitually. 

Khorad,  to  tremble  :  Crith,  shake. 

Khorag,  to  force,  to  drive  out  part  of  it,  like  khoram,  to  devote  for  good 
or  evil :  Cuir,  set,  place. 

Khorats,  move  quickly  :  Grad,  more  quickly. 

Khoog,  a  circle;  khakoh,  a  fish-hook ;  khokh,  a  ring  to  put  in  an 
animal's  nose;  kiiogag,  to  move  in  a  circle;  khagouroh,  a  girdle, 
a  belt;  khaik,  the  bosom;  khogar,  to  gird  about;  khaikh,  the 
palate;  khokak,  to  impress,  to  engrave  (the  idea  is  something 
hollowed  as  a  cup  is) :  of  all  these  the  idea  is  roundness,  or 
hollowness,  or  both:  like  Gaelic  Cuach,  a  cup;  the  basin  in  the 
hollow  of  a  hill;  a  curl. 

Khartsoov,  torment :  Cruaidh,  painful. 

Khoroh,  fierce;  khoroh,  to  be  kindled  (applied  to  anger);  Geur, 
fierce. 


KHETH.  To 

Khomak,  to  linger ;  khocmer,  clay;  potter's  clay;  mortar  for  building  ; 

khoumer,  a  homer,  a  measure  of  capacity ;    khoomoz,  a  buckle: 

Cum,  hold,  withhold. 
Kholoots,  drawn  back,  rescued:  Cul,  behind. 
Khait,  a  sin;  a  little  like  Ciont,  a  sin. 
Khovat,  to  beat  off :  Caob,  strike. 
Khilloh,  to  supplicate:  Cli,  humble. 

Khoraph,  to  reproach,  to  slander:  perhaps  like  Gaoir,  noise. 
Khomad,  to  desire  eagerly,  to  covet:  Caomh,  dear. 
Khool,  to  be  sorrowful :  Gul,  lament. 
Khorad,  care:  perhaps  like  Curam,  care. 
Khorash,  to  grave;  to  plough;  to  cut  out;  to  fabricate;  khouraish, 

an  artificer,  as  in  wood;    kheret,  a  graving-tool,  an  iron  pen; 

khoroots,  sharp;  khorooth,  to  engrave;  khorool,  a  thorn-bush; 

kherev,   a   sword,  a  weapon;    khermais,  kher-mais,  a  sickle,  a 

scythe:  Gearr,  cut;  geur,  sharp. 
Khalloh,  a  cake,  if  round,  perhaps  from  its  shape ;    khalakhoth, 

a  caldron,  from  its  round  shape :  Calbh,  a  head. 
Khaits,  an  arrow;  kheedoh,  sharp;  khidouth,  sharp  sayings,  riddles; 

khaddoh,  sharp;   khoots,  a  thorn;   khedek,  khed-ek,  a  brier; 

khotav,  to  cut  wood ;  khotoh,  to  cast  out ;  khotsav,  to  hew  out  of 

a  rock;    khotsoh,  to  divide;    khouter,  a  twig,  a  shoot,  a  rod: 

of  all  these  the  idea  is  sharp,  penetrating,  cutting :  like  Gaelic 

Gath,  a  sting,  a  dart,  a  javelin,  an  arrow. 
Khonan,  to  implore :  Caoin,  to  lameni. 
Khain,  favour  ;  khon an,  to  be  gracious  :  Caoin,  pleasant. 
Khour,  a  holt :  Cro,  anything  round. 
Khoor,  ivhite,  pale ;  khouroe,  white  linen;  khori,  a  nobleman  dressed 

in  white  :  Ciar,  grey. 
Khonag,  to  strangle,  to  choke :  Cuing,  a  yoke. 

Khopho,  to  cover  over;  khupoh,  a  canopy,  cover,  protection:  Cab,  a  head. 
Khalee,  a  jewel  for  the  neck :   perhaps  akin  to  Caol,  small,  narrow 

(might  be  applied  to  the  neck:  from  caol  comes  Latin  columna). 
Khaneeth,  a  javelin  :  Guin,  wound,  pierce. 
Khoyo,  to  hide :  Cub,  bend  the  body,  crouch. 
Kholov,  milk  ;  khol  like  Goal,  white. 
Khophats,    to   desire;    khaiphets,    delight:    Gabh,    take;    conceive; 

kindle. 
Khail,   a  fortification,  a  bulwark ;    khelkoh,  a  portion   of  ground; 

KHAiLEK,  a  portion,  an  inheritance :    Cladh,  a  trench,  a  dyke,  a 

stone-wall,  a  mound. 


26  HEBREW    AND     GAELIC. 

Khodal,  to  cease,  to  forbear :  perhaps  akin  to  Codal,  sleep. 

Khalomeesh,_/?sm£  :  Clach,  a  stone. 

Kholal,  to  wound,  to  kill :  perhaps  akin  to  Gaelic  Clach,  a  stone,  as 
stones  were  used  in  attack  (hoth  by  themselves  and  in  slings), 
and  stoning  was  a  form  of  judicial  execution.  Also  like  lia, 
a  stone  ;  kh  prefixed. 

Khaireem,  enclosed  in  a  net :  Car,  a  turn. 

Khouver,  a  waste  place  :  Garhh,  rough,  rugged. 

Khovair,  a  companion  :  Comh,  together  ;  fear,  a  man. 

Khovereth,  a  joining  :  Comh,  together  ;  heir,  bear. 

Khoshav,  to  think,  to  reckon  :  Cuis,  a  matter ;  a  cause;  a  reason. 

Khaleetsouth,  change  of  dresses  :  perhaps  like  Cleidh,  hide,  conceal. 

Khotath,  to  make  anxious  :  Guidh,  beseech. 

Kholeel,  a  tube,  a  hollow  instrument ;  kholel,  a  player  on  a  wind- 
instrument  :  Cuilc,  a  cane,  a  reed. 

Khalatz,  the  loin  ;  khalotseen,  loins :  perhaps  like  Cul,  the  back. 

Khaloun,  khal-oun,  a  window  (see  khavveen)  :  perhaps  akin  to  Geal, 
white. 

Khoulaik,  a  partner  (see  kaloh,  a  spouse):  Ceile,  a  spouse;  a  husband; 
ceile  akin  to  gaol,  love. 

SECOND    GROUP. 

Either  the  Hebrew  prefixes  kh,  or  the  Gaelic  omits  initial  c  or  g. 
Khevel,  a  rope,  a  cord;    khouvail,  a  cable;    khovel,   a   ship-man, 

a  sailor  ;  from  using  ropes  much  :  Ball,  a  cable. 
Khavveen,  kha-vveen  (Syriac),  a  window :  perhaps  akin  to  Ban,  white 

(see  khaloun). 
Khophar,  kho-phar,  to  blush  :  Broth,  fire. 
Khavoleem,  spoilers;  vol  like  Buail,  smite. 
Khabooroh,  a  boil ;  boor  like  Barr,  a  swelling  ;  or  hrath,  fire. 
Khaburouth,  swellings,  bloivs ;  like  Barr,  a  height,  a  swelling ;  or  caob, 

strike. 
Khoroh,  to  contend:  Ar,  fight. 

Kiiolok,  smooth:  Leac,  aflat  stone  (cromlech  is  partly  from  this). 
Khamman,  an  image :  Amhuil,  amh-uil,  like. 
Khitto,  to  cleanse  (suppose  to  wash) :  Ad  (obs.),  water. 
Khuk,  khouk,  a  decree,  a  statute  (suppose  a  proclamation)  :    Eigh, 

a  shout. 
Khodoh,  to  rejoice:  Ait,  joyful. 
Khaseen,  khousen,  strength;   khousen,  khozak,  strong;  khozak,  to 

strengthen  ;  Ais  (obs.),  a  stronghold. 


TETH.  27 

Khozek,  a  breast;  khoushen,  a  breast-plate :  Ais  (obs.),  a  hill. 

Khoval,  to  twist :  Fill,  fold. 

Khoumoh,  a  circumvallation  ivall :  Uim,  around. 

Khayil,  an  army.     Under  the  letter  kaph,  see  kol,  all;  koloh,  to 

complete;    kohol,   an   assembly;    kohal,   to   assemble;    koul,    all 

tilings,  everything  :  under  the  letter  koph,  see  kohol,  an  assembly; 

kohal,  to  assemble :    all  these  Hebrew  words  are  akin  to  each 

other,  and  to  the  Gaelic  Uile,  all. 
Akhar,  after;  akhourai,  the  hinder  parts  ;  akhouraxeetii,  back  again; 

akhareeth,  latter,  last ;  akhair,  another,  from  akhar,  after  (these 

are  given  also  under  the  letter  aleph) :  Iar,  after;   kh  prefixed! 

and  then  a  prefixed. 
Khoushekh,  khou-shekh,  dark ;  khashaikoh,  darkness :  Sgiath,  a  shade. 

TETH. 
Some  Hebrew  and  Gaelic  words  are  alike  in  meaning  and  sound, 
except  that  an  initial  t  is  either  added  in  Hebrew,  or  omitted  in  Gaelic ; 
either  t,  or  t  followed  by  a  vowel-sound. 

FIRST   GROUP. 

Hebrew  words  beginning  with  t,  and  Gaelic  words  beginning  with 

d  or  t. 
Teeroh,  a  castle,  a  tower  :  Tur,  a  tower ;  torr,  a  hill. 
Toor  (Chaldee  and  Syriac),  a  mount :  Torr,  a  hill. 
Toan,  to  load:  perhaps  like  Dun,  a  hill  (a  heap). 
Tomam,  to  cover  over :  Tom,  a  hill  (a*  heap). 
Tooh,  to  err :  Taobh,  a  side. 

Tokhan,  to  grind,  to  make  small :  a  little  like  Tana,  thin. 
Toam,  to  taste,  to  eat  a  little  :  Teum,  bite. 
Torakh,  to  weary :  Teirig,  waste. 

Tohar,  to  cleanse  (suppose  to  wash) ;  tohoor,  clean  :  Doir,  water. 
Teeroh,  a  castle,  a  tower :  Tur,  a  tower ;  torr,  a  hill. 
Touar,  of  a  fine  form  ;  akin  to  teeroh. 

SECOND     GROUP. 

An  initial  t  is  either  added  in  Hebrew,  or  omitted  in  Gaelic ;  either  t, 

or  t  followed  by  a  vowel-sound. 
Taam,  manner;  the  m  like  Modh,  manner. 
Tova,  t-ova,  to  sink;  toval,  t-oval,  to  dip :  Abh  (obs.),  water. 
Touv,  tou-v,  good;  the  v  like  Ba  (obs.),  good;  b  changed  to  v.     See 
under  Hebrew  yotav,  to  make  good. 


28  HEBREW    AND    GAELIC. 

Terkm,  te-rem,  before  :  Roi,  before. 

Toov,  a  row  :  perhaps  like  Sreath,  a  row  ;  s  omitted  ;  t  prefixed.     See 
under  the  letter  tov,  tout,  a  row. 

YOD. 

The  tenth  Hebrew  letter. 
Some  Hebrew  and  Gaelic  words  are  alike  in  meaning  and  sound, 
except  that  either  the  Hebrew  prefixes  y,  or  the  Gaelic  omits  this 
sound  at  the  beginning  of  a  word. 

FIRST    GROUP. 

An  initial  y  either  added  in  Hebrew,  or  this  sound  omitted  in  Gaelic ; 

either  y,  or  y  followed  by  a  vowel-sound :   about  twenty-nine 

instances. 
Yabeleth,  a  wen,  a  swelling;  bel  like  Ball,  a  round  object. 
Yaish,  existence  :  Is,  am. 
Yotso,  to  go  out :  Uidhe,  a  step. 
Yoda,  to  know  :  Aithnich,  aith-nich,  know. 
Yoro,  to  saturate;  yeour,  a  river  :  Ruith,  flow. 

Yodd,  to  appoint,  to  assemble;  yatseev  (Syimc),  fixed :   Aite,  a  place. 
Yelel,   a  babe;  yfled,  a  child;    yolad,   to  beget;    yeldoh,   a  girl: 

Al,  young;  young  of  any  kind;    a  brood;    a  generation:    alaich, 

bring  forth. 
Yosar,  to  chastise  :  perhaps  like  Ais,  behind. 
Youm,  a  day :  Am,  time. 
Yithmarmor,  yith-mar-mor,  to  embitter ;  yith  prefixed;  mar  like  Muir, 

the  sea  ;  mar  repeated. 
Yesoud,  foundation  ;  yosad,  to  found ;  yoshav,  to  sit:  Suidh,  sit,  place. 
Yorash,  to  inherit,  to  succeed :  perhaps  like  Tar,  after. 
Yoheer,  superb  :  Ard,  high. 
Yoshpaih,  a  jasper  ;  precious  stones  of  different  colours;  yosh  like  Hebrew 

aish,  _/?>•«,  like  Gaelic  Teas,  heat. 
Yerakh,  a  month  :  Re,  the  moon. 

Yom,  the  sea  ;  yaimeem,  springs  of  water:  Abh,  water  ;  bh  to  m. 
Yoshon,  old;  yoshan,  to  grow  old  :  Sean,  old. 
Yoshan,  yo-shan,  to  sleep  :  Suain,  sleep. 
Yorat,  to  hinder,  to  keep  back :  perhaps  like  Iar,  behind. 
Yosuor,  straight,  just :  Sreath,  a  row,  a  line. 
Yogoh,  to  grieve  ;  Och,  alas. 
Yoga,  to  exert,  to  work :  Achd,  do. 
Yovash,  to  dry  up,  to  wither:  Fas,  lay  waste. 


YOD-KAPH.  29 

Yogar,  to  fear  :  Crith,  tremble. 

Yotav,  to  amend,  to  improve,  make  good;  yo  prefixed;  t  prefixed;  the 

v  like  Ba  (obs.),  good.     See  under  Hebrew  touv,  good. 
In  all  the  above  an  initial  y  is  either  added  in  Hebrew,  or  omitted 

in  Gaelic. 

SECOND     GROUP. 

A  conjectural  affinity  is  offered  for  the  consideration  of  the  reader : 
perhaps  an  initial  consonant  either  omitted  in  Hebrew,  or  added 
in  Gaelic.  The  instances  where  /  is  either  omitted  or  added 
are  very  clear,  and  if  one  consonant  be  so  treated,  why  not  an- 
other P  See  the  third  group  under  the  letter  aleph  ;  the  third  group 
under  the  letter  he  ;  and  the  third  group  under  the  letter  ayin. 

Yoro,  to  fear:  Crith,  tremble;  c  omitted. 

Yodoh,  to  throw  :  Gath,  a  dart  ;  g  omitted. 

Yohav,  give :  Gabh,  take  ;  g  omitted. 

Youreh,  rain:  Doir,  water;  d  omitted. 

Yekev,  a  wine-vault,  a  cellar  ;  ye  prefixed ;  k  prefixed ;  ev  like  Gaelic 
TTamh,  a  cave. 
In  the  next  ten  words,  an  initial  /  either  omitted  in  Hebrew,  or 
added  in  Gaelic. 

Yayin,  wine  :  Fion,  wine. 

Yerek,  green;  yerokoun,  green,  greenish;  yariokoun,  pale  green: 
Feur,  grass. 

Yaar,  a  forest :  Fridh,  a  forest. 

Yosaph,  to  increase  :  Fas,  to  grow. 

Yoxoh,  to  defraud:  Faoin,  foolish,  idle. 

Yaaneh,  with  great  noise  :  Fonn,  an  air,  a  tune,  a  sound. 

Yidounee,  a  prognostication  ;  yid  like  Faidh,  a  prophet. 

Yolakh,  y-ol-ak,  to  walk  (see  holakh)  :  Falbh,  go. 

KAPH. 

The  eleventh  Hebrew  letter — kaph  or  coph.  Sometimes  represented 
by  e  ;  sometimes  by  k  ;  it  is  here  represented  by  k. 

Some  Hebrew  and  Gaelic  words  are  alike  in  meaning  and  sound, 
except  that  either  the  Hebrew  prefixes  k,  or  the  Gaelic  omits  this  sound 
at  the  beginning  of  a  word ;  either  k,  or  k  followed  by  a  vowel-sound. 

FIRST    GROUP. 

Words  which  begin  with  k  in  Hebrew,  and  with  c  or  g  in  Gaelic. 

Kouhain,  a  priest :  perhaps  from  the  Hebrew  word  to  perform  duty. 

Also  like  Gaelic  Can  (obs.),  white  (he  wore  white  vestments). 


30  HEBREW    AND     GAELIC. 

Kouhain,  a  priest ;  kehounoh,  the  priestly  office;  from  koon,  to  fix ; 
from  his  performing  fixed  duties.  See  under  koon,  to  fix  ;  akin 
to  Comhnuidh,  a  dwelling,  a  fixed  abode. 

Koon,  to  fix,  erect ;  kan,  a  basis,  a  pedestal ;  konas,  konash  (Chaldee), 
to  gather  into  a  place  of  security.  Under  the  letter  koph,  see  kan, 
a  nest ;  konan,  to  make  a  nest :  under  the  letter  kheth,  see  khonoh, 
to  encamp:  also  see  makhaneh,  a  camp;  gan,  a  garden;  gonan, 
to  enclose.  Of  all  these,  the  idea  is  an  enclosure.  Also  see 
tekhoonoh,  establishment,  estate,  property;  tikhotjn,  established; 
mekhounoh,  a  foundation,  a  base;  shekhan,  a  resting-place.  All 
these  Hebrew  words  are  akin  to  each  other,  and  to  the  Gaelic 
Comhnuidh,  comhn-uidh,  a  dwelling. 

Kinnoh,  to  name  :  Cinneach,  a  surname. 

Kool,  to  hold  up  :  Gabhail,  take. 

Kelouv,  a  basket :  Cliabh,  a  basket. 

Kephottr,  a  large  cup  :  Gabh,  take,  receive. 

Kikhaish,  to  deceive  :  Caog,  wink,  connive. 

Koloh,  dim;  Ceil,  hide,  shelter. 

Kophan,  to  decline :  Cub,  bend. 

Kophath  (Syriac),  to  fetter :  perhaps  like  Cub,  bend. 

Kora,  to  kneel,  to  bend :  Car,  a  turn,  a  twist. 

Keroov,  a  cherub ;  ker  perhaps  like  Gradh,  favour,  love. 

Kool,  to  comprehend :  Ciall,  sense,  reason. 

Korath,  to  make  agreement;  koraz  (Syriac),  an  edict:  Gaoir,  noise 
(suppose  a  proclamation). 

Kouhain,  a  chief  person  :  Ceann,  a  head. 

Kolo,  to  confine,  constrain  :  Cul,  back  ;  culaig,  an  impediment. 

Kidoun,  a  lance,  a  spear :  Gath,  a  dart,  a  Javelin. 

Keedoudeem,  sparks  of  fire  :  Gath,  a  ray  of  light. 

Kona,  to  humble :  Caoin,  to  lament. 

Kouva,  a  helmet;  kovood,  stately :  Cab,  a  head. 

Kour,  a  certain  measure :  perhaps  like  Cro,  anything  round. 

Koshal,  to  stumble  :  perhaps  like  Cos,  afoot. 

Kaph,  the  palm  of  the  hand ;  the  sole  of  the  foot  (the  idea  is  something 
hollow)  :  Cub,  bend. 

Koroh,  to  prepare  a  banquet :  Cuirm,  a  feast. 

Kelev,  a  dog  ;  ke  like  Cu,  a  dog. 

Korath,  to  cut;  kouraith,  a  feller,  a  cutter;  karkar,  to  root  out; 
koro  (Chaldee),  to  pierce  ;  koras,  to  devour;  karkar,  to  root  out 
{kar  repeated) :  Gearr,  cut ;  geur,  sharp. 


KAPH.  31 

Kaloh,  a  bride;   kelooloh,  bridal  state  (see  khoulaik,  a  partner) : 

Ceile,  a  spouse  ;  ceile  is  akin  to  gaol,  love. 
Korah,  a  beam  of  wood  ;  a  little  like  Crann,  a  beam. 
Kethouveth,  a  writing  ;  see  Hebrew  ait,  an  iron  pen  :  perhaps  like 

Gath,  a  dart,  &c.  (the  idea  being  something  pointed) . 
Keetour,  a  basin;   kikor,  a  loaf  (from  its  shape?):    Cro,  ant/thing 

round. 
Kayoh,  to  extinguish  :    Cab,  a  head  (the  idea  is  putting  something 

over  it). 
Keryah,  a  place  for  cattle :    Cro,  an  enclosure;  a  sheep-cote;   a  wattled 

fold. 
Kephel,  a  couple,  two :  Cupall,  a  couple,  a  pair  (perhaps  cupall  is  not 

good  Gaelic). 
Keed  (Arabic),  a  misfortune  :  perhaps  like  Gath,  a  sting. 
Kilyah,  a  kidney :  perhaps  akin  to  Cul,  back  (placed  at  the  back). 

second    group. 

An  initial  k  is  either  added  in  Hebrew,  or  omitted  in  Gaelic ;  either 
k,  or  k  followed  by  a  vowel-sound. 

Kol,  all;  koloh,  to  complete;  kohal,  to  assemble;  kohol,  an  assembly ; 
koul,  all  things,  everything.  Under  the  letter  kheth,  see  khayil, 
an  army;  under  the  letter  koph,  kohal,  to  assemble;  kohol,  an 
assembly.  All  these  Hebrew  words  are  akin  to  each  other,  and  to 
the  Gaelic  Uile,  all. 

Kissai,  a  chair,  a  throne :  Suidh,  sit. 

Kar,  a  man  in  power  :  Ard,  high. 

Kether,  a  crown;  with  ther  is  the  idea  of  roundness,  as  in  Gaelic 
Tur,  a  tower. 

Kabbeer,  valiant;  beer  like  kovar,  to  make  great :  Mor,  great,  mighty; 
m  to  b. 

Kephuar,  hoar-frost :  Fuar,  cold. 

Komar,  to  shrivel  from  heat;  mar  like  Brath,  fire. 

Kalkail,  a  sustainer,  a  nourisher  :  Al,  to  nourish. 

Kippair,  to  purify  :  Brath,  fire. 

Kikor,  ki-kor,  a  level  tract  of  country,  surrounded  ivith  hills  ;  ki  prefixed ; 
kor  like  Gaelic  Cars,  a  level  fertile  tract  of  country,  as  the  Carse  of 
Gowrie,  Carse  of  Stirling,  &c.  The  idea  is  a  tract  through  which 
a  river  runs,  and  somewhat  level  as  compared  with  the  adjacent 
hills:  this  is  a  very  interesting  word.  See  meeshour,  me-shour, 
like  the  Gaelic  srath,  a  strath. 


32  HEBREW    AND    GAELIC. 

THIRD    GROUP. 

An  initial  s  is  either  omitted  in  Hebrew,  or  added  in  Gaelic. 
Konoph,  a  wing  :  Sgiathan,  a  little  wing;  s  omitted.    Under  the  letter 
koph,  see  Hebrew  koot  like  Gaelic  sgeith:    Hebrew   kee   like 
Gaelic  sgeith ;  Hebrew  kain  like  Gaelic  sgian :  also  see  Hebrew 
goloh  like  Gaelic  sgeul :  instances  where  *  is  similarly  treated. 

Kee,  but :  Ach,  but;  a  omitted. 

LAMED. 

The  twelfth  Hebrew  letter. 

Some  Hebrew  and  Gaelic  words  are  alike  in  meaning  and  sound, 
except  that  an  initial  I  is  either  added  in  Hebrew,  or  omitted  in 
Gaelic  ;  either  I,  or  I  followed  by  a  vowel-sound. 

Some  Hebrew  words  beginning  with  I  are  in  meaning  and  sound 
like  Gaelic  words,  except  that  the  Gaelic  words  begin  with  c  or  g ;  an 
initial  c  ot  g  either  omitted  in  Hebrew,  or  added  in  Gaelic. 

FIRST    GROUP. 

Words  which  begin  with  I  in  both  languages. 

Loakh,  a  tablet  of  stone  {also  a  tablet  of  wood  or  metal ) ;  lekhee,  a 
cheek  (perhaps  the  idea  is  a  flat  surface) ;  lekhem,  bread  (perhaps 
from  its  shape  ;  flat  cakes  ?) ;  Leac,  a  flat  stone  (as  in  cromlech). 

Leshem,  an  agate,  a  whitish  stone :  perhaps  like  Lia,  grey. 

Lovat,  to  stumble :  Lub,  crouch,  bend. 

Lophath,  to  shrink,  to  contract :  Lub,  bend 

second    group. 
An  initial  I  is  either  added  in  Hebrew,  or  omitted  in  Gaelic ;  either  I, 

or  I  followed  by  a  vowel-sound. 
Lemaaloh,  high  :  Meall,  a  hill. 

Leshoraith,  to  minister  to,  to  serve :  Saothair,  work,  labour. 
Lovan,   to  whiten ;    livnoh,  whiteness ;   livnoh,  a  poplar  (a  whitish 

tree) ;  levonoh,  the  moon  ;  all  these  like  Gaelic  Ban,  white. 
Levonoh,  the  moon  ;  luan,  the  moon.   The  Hebrew  for  moon  is  akin  to 

the  Hebrew  for  white.     In  livnoh,  li  prefixed ;    vn  like  Gaelic 

Ban,  white.     In  Gaelic,  gealach  is  the  moon,  and  goal  is  white. 
Levainoh,  a  brick,  like  Hebrew  even,  a  stone;  which  see:   Hebrew 

even  akin  to  Gaelic  Ban,  white. 
Leoomath,  agreeable,  corresponding  to  :  Amhuil,  amh-uil,  like. 
La,  no,  not,  none,  nothing:    perhaps  like  Cha  (pronounced  ha),  not ; 

I  prefixed. 


MEM.  33 

THIRD    GUOUP. 

At  the  beginning  of  a  word,  c  or  g  is  either  omitted  in  Hebrew,  or 
added  in  Gaelic. 

Lahav,  a  blade,  the  glittering  part  of  a  sword;  a  flame;  flaming; 
lapeed,  aflame;  lappeed,  a  torch,  aflame;  in  lap-eed,  lap  like 
lahav,  the  v  changed  to  p:  Claidheamh,  a  sword  (the  French 
glaive  and  Scotch  claymore). 

Lovoh,  to  join:  Ceile,  a  spouse;  a  husband. 

Loat,  to  conceal;  loot,  to  wrap  up:  Cleidh,  hide,  conceal. 

Levoosh,  garments,  clothing  ;  le  like  Cleidh,  hide,  cover. 

Lokakh,  to  take ;  lokad,  to  take  by  force,  to  conquer ;  lokat,  to  collect, 
to  pick  up;  lokash,  to  glean;  lokak,  to  lap,  to  lick  (that  is,  to 
take) ;  lokhakh,  to  clear  away,  to  eat  up  entirely;  lokhats,  to 
oppress :  all  these  like  Gaelic  Glac,  to  take ;  g  omitted. 

Lothath,  to  cry  out :  Glaodh,  to  call. 

Loua,  the  gullet,  the  throat :  Caol,  narrow. 

Laoiz,  a  strange  language:  Gall,  a  loivlander ;  a  foreigner :  one  ignorant 
of  the  Gaelic  i 


MEM. 

The  thirteenth  Hebrew  letter.  As  the  wavy  appearance  of  the  top 
of  the  letter  is  like  the  ripples  on  the  surface  of  water,  there  is  an 
idea  that  Mem  received  its  name  from  Mayim,  waters,  plural  of 
mabuah,  a  stream  ;  this  like  Gaelic  Abh,  water  ;  m  prefixed. 

Some  Hebrew  and  Gaelic  words  are  alike  in  meaning  and  sound, 
except  that  an  initial  m  is  either  added  in  Hebrew,  or  omitted  in 
Gaelic ;  either  m,  or  m  followed  by  a  vowel-sound. 

FIRST    GROUP. 

Words  which  begin  with  m  in  both  languages. 
Maaloii,  a  height,  a  cliff;    maal,  above ;    maaloh,  a  degree,  a  step : 

Meall,  a  hill ;  maol,  a  promontory,  a  mull  (as  in  Mull  of  Cantire, 

Mull  of  Galloway). 
Melekh,  a  king;  malkoh,  a  queen;  molakh,  to  reign:  perhaps  akin 

to  Hebrew  maal,  above,  like  Meall,  a  hill. 
Moad,  a  place  of  assembly  :  Mod,  an  assembly. 
Mooh,  bowels ;   meouhee    (Syriac),   entrails :    a  little  like   Mionach, 

bowels. 
Melokhoh,  labour,  ivork  :  Meil,  grind. 
Mook,  to  mock :  Mag,  to  mock  (is  mag  good  Gaelic  ?) 


34  HEBREW     AND     GAELIC. 

Meoud,  exceedingly :  Mo,  more. 

Moroum.  high,  hfty;  like  Mor,  gnat ;  or  ard,  high  (m  prefixed). 

Mosakh,  to  mingle  liquids:  Measg,  to  mix. 

Mokhor,  to-morrow:  Maireach,  to-morrow. 

Minda  (Chaldee),  intelligence  :  Mem,  mind. 

Mokho,  to  smite  together,  to  squeeze:  Much,  squeeze. 

Maiseem,  consideration :  Meas,  esteem. 

Meoud,  exceedingly  :  Mo,  more. 

Mohar,  to  embitter;  marmar,  to  embitter;  mar  repeated:  Muir,  the  sea. 

Morats,  to  be  vehement :  perhaps  like  Mor,  great,  mighty ;  or  brath, 

fire  (excited). 
Mooth,  to  die  :  Meath,  fade,  decay. 

Mithanneh,  irritating  himself:  Miami,  desire,  strong  will. 
Maitav,  mai-tav,  best  ;  mat  like  Mo,  more.     See  under  tav  :  in  tav  the 

v  like  Ba  (obs.),  good;  ta  prefixed. 

SECOND     GROUP. 

Words  beginning  with  in,  where  an  initial  m  is  either  added  in 
Hebrew,  or  omitted  in  Gaelic;  either  m,  or  m  followed  by  a 
vowel-sound. 

MtitRO,  reading  (if  reading  aloud)  :  Gaoir,  a  noise. 

Moouz,  a  strong  protection :  Ais  (obs.),  a  stronghold. 

Moroum,  height :  Ard,  high. 

Megooroh,  a  stone-house  ■  meiuiek,  a  fixed  place,  a  habitation  :   Cro, 

a  hut. 
Maakeii,  a  battlement :  Ach,  a  bank,  a  mound. 
Misneh,  repetition  :  Ais,  back,  back  again. 
Moi'Tso,  a  pouring  :  Ad  (obs.),  water. 
Maakosh,  to  prevent :  perhaps  like  Au  aghaidh,  against. 
Mikhroh,  mi-khroh,  a  mine:   perhaps  akin  to  Gearr,  cut;    cutting 

into  the  ground. 
Mogex,  mo-gen,  a  potentate,  a  head :  Ceann,  a  head. 
Maiiuah,  m-abuah,  a  stream:  Abh  (obs.),  water. 
Mokour,  a  spring,  a  fountain  ;    kour  perhaps  akin  to  Cro,  any  thing 

round  (which  a  spring  is). 
Makiiarosh,  a  cutting  instrument ;  megerah,  a  saw,  a  harrow  :  Gearr, 

cut. 
Mikro,  a  convocation  :  Gaoir,  a  noise,  a  call. 
Mageed,  a  declarer,  a  reporter :  Guth,  a  voice. 
Mekhaleleem,  piping  ;  klud  like  Cuilc,  a  cane,  a  reed. 


MEM.  35 

Moog,  to  dissolve;  mokak,  to  dissolve;  oog  like  aig,  in  Aigeal,  aig-eal, 

a  pool ;  aigean,  the  sea. 
Mokhah,  mo-khar,  to  sell ;  mekheer,  me-kheer,  the  price :  Creic,  sell ; 

reic,  sell. 
Makhaneh,  a  camp;   mokhoun,  an  establishment.     Under  the  letter 

kheth,  see  khonoh,  to  encamp :  under  the  letter  kaph,  see  koon, 

to  erect ;  kan,  a  basis ;  konas,  konash,  to  gather  into  a  place  of 

security  :  under  the  letter  koph,  see  kan,  a  nest ;  konan,  to  make 

a  nest :  also  see  gan,  a  garden ;  gonan,  to  enclose.    Of  all  these  the 

idea  is  an  enclosure.     Also  see  mekhounoh,  a  foundation,  a  base  ; 

TEKHOUNOH,  establishment,  estate,  property;    tikhoux,  established. 

All  these  Hebrew  words  are  akin  to  each  other,  and  to  the  Gaelic 

Comhnuidh,  comhn-uidh,  a  dwelling. 
Moulad,  bringing  forth ;   mouledeth,  nativity :   Al,  brood;  young  of 

any  kind  ;  alaich,  bring  forth. 
Moroh,  to  rebel:  At,  fight. 
Moain,  to  refuse;  m  prefixed;  n  like  Gaelic  Neo,  not  (the  preposition 

turned  into  a  verb). 
Motor,  slight  rain;  tor  like  Doir,  water. 
Mevakaish,  requesting ;  vak  like  Focal,  foc-al,  a  word ;  also  like  beuc, 

utter  a  sound. 
Mourash,  a  possessor  :  perhaps  like  Uir,  land. 
Mahamor,  m-aham-or,  a  flowing,  a  torrent ;  m  prefixed  ;  am  like  Abh, 

water  ;  our  like  ruith,  flow  ;  or  mor  (in  composition  or),  great. 
Mosas,    to  dissolve ;    maisheev,    to   refresh,    revive;    mishka,    sunken, 

muddy;  maskey,  drink,  moisture;  mashkeh,  a  moist  fertile  place; 

mesheg,  an  overflow;    m  prefixed;    os  like  Gaelic  Uisge,  uis-ge, 

water.      The   Hebrew  maskey  is   like    whiskey,  which  is  from 

Gaelic  uisge;  m  to  b;  b  to  v ;  v  to  u;  u  to  w. 
Maishoreem,  uprightness ;  meeshour,  straight:  Sreath,  a  line,  a  row. 
Moshol,  a.  proverb,  a  parable:  Sgeul,  a  tale. 
Medeenoh,  a  province;  akin  to  Hebrew  adounee,  a  lord,  a  governor ; 

like  Gaelic  Tanaiste,  a  thane. 
Merootsoh,  a  race;  mairoots,  a  race;  mock,  myrrh  (runs  from  the 

tree) :  Ruith,  run,  flow. 
Molai,/«W;  millai,  to  fill,  fulfil,  satisfy,  complete:  Uile,  all. 
Mareh,  sight,  countenance  :  Roi,  before  ;  m  prefixed. 
Makhahai,  ma-khab-ai,  to  lurk:  Cub,  crouch. 
Mazrkeah,  ma-zreeah,  seeding :  Sreath,  a  row. 
Masiikeeth,  ma-skheeth,  a  destroyer,  spoiler:  Sgath,  cut  off. 
Mkshoraith,  me-shoraitb,  a  minister,  attendant :  Saothair,  labour,  work. 


36  HEBREW     AND     GAELIC. 

Mestjkhoh,  me-sukhoh,  protection,  shelter;  mesookhoh,  me-sookhoh, 
a  covering :  Sgiath,  a  shade,  shelter. 

Mishkol,  mish-kol,  a  weight  (see  shokal)  :  Clach,  a  stone. 

Maaleh,  m-aaleh,  a  step,  a  stair :  Meall,  a  hill. 

Mokhats,  mo-khats,  to  wound:  makhoh,  ma-khoh,  a  stroke,  a  blow  : 
Gath,  a  dart,  a  javelin. 

Meneged,  m-eneged,  in  the  presence  of:  An  aghaidh,  against,  opposite. 

Maiveen,  mai-veen,  understanding :  Mein,  mind;  m  to  v. 

Massour,  ma-ssour,  a  saw  :  Searr,  cut. 

Medooroh,  me-dooroh,  a  pile,  a  heap  :  Torr,  a  hill. 

Meeshour,  mee-shour,  level  ground :  Srath,  a  strath,  or  valley.  Strath 
occurs  in  many  names  of  places,  as  Strathtay,  Strathbraan,  &c. 
A  strath  is  the  ground  on  each  side  of  a  river  ;  it  is  comparatively 
level  as  contrasted  -with  the  hills  which  border  it.  This  and 
Hebrew  kikor,  ki-kor,  a  level  fertile  tract  like  the  Gaelic  Cars, 
a  carse,  as  the  Carse  of  Gowrie,  Carse  of  Stirling,  &c,  are  very 
interesting  words. 

Mibaith,  mi-baith,  within,  inside,  in  the  house  :  Buth,  a  booth,  pavilion, 
Lowland-Scotch  bothy. 

Moutso,  m-out-so,  a  spring :  perhaps  like  Ad  (obs.),  water. 


THIRD   group. 

The  initial  letter  is  in  in  Hebrew,  and  I  in  Gaelic. 

M,  from  (prefixed  to  a  substantive) ;  mem,  sini.  from. out  of:  Bho,  from. 
Maileets,  an  interpreter ;  milloh,  a  word;  millail,  to  converse :  Beul, 

the  mouth. 
Mizeh, from  this;  m  like  Bho,  from;  zeh  like  so,  this. 
Milkhomoh,  a  battle,  perhaps  like  malkouakh,  booty ;  mahalumah, 

mahal-umah,  a  beating :  Buail,  strike. 
Malokh,  a  messenger,  angel:  Buail,  throw  (send). 
Morak,  tnpolish:  Brath,^?^. 
Mereerai,  bitter  destruction  ;  morakii,  to  bruise;  mourag,  a  thrashing 

instrument :  Bruth,  bruise. 
Mookh,  to  reduce  to  poverty;  mook.ii,  poor;  makhsour,  want:  Bochd, 

poor. 
Mokii,  a  wasting  ;  mekhitoii,  dashing  to  pieces  :  Beag,  small. 
Mogar,  to  cast  out :  perhaps  Bho,  from;  cuir,  to  place. 
Man,    to  appoint,  constitute;   menukhoh,  rest;   mooun,  a  habitation; 

mankee  (Syriac),  to  set,  appoint :  Bun,  a  foundation. 
Miyocm,  from  the  day :  Bho,  from;  am,  time. 


MEM.  37 

Maioulom,  from  everlasting;  m  like  Bho,  from;  aiovl  like  uile,  all; 

om  like  am,  time. 
Meoroh,  a  cavern  :  Bruth,  a  cave. 
Moxa,  to  avoid,  keep  back  :  perhaps  like  Bho,  from. 
Meooroh, fiery  ;  marbekhkth,  fried :  Brath, fire. 
Maireem,  to  raise  up  :  Beir,  to  carry ;  or  ard,  high  ;  m  prefixed. 
Makail,  a  walking-stick  :  Bachall,  a  staff. 
Matteh,  a  staff;  mout,  a  staff,  a  pole  :  Bat,  a  staff. 
Maayon,  a  fountain  ;  like  Hebrew  ain,  a  fountain  :  Buinne,  a  pool  in 

a.  river  (hence  Latin  fons). 

FOURTH  GROUP. 

Tho  initial  letter  is  m  in  Hebrew,  and /in  Gaelic. 

Maa.veh,  an  answer,  a  reply :  Fonn,  an  air,  a  tune. 

Malhoosh,  raiment;  meeel,  a  mantle;   meulepheth,  covered:    Feile, 

a  covering. 
Meshissoh,  spoil;  mashkeeth,  a  spoiler;  mozoh,  to  dry  up  (if  land): 

Fas,  lay  tcaste. 
Maazeh,  work  :  perhaps  like  Fas,  grow,  increase. 
Mozouk,  food,  nourishment  :  Fas,  grow. 
Moas,  to  abhor  :  Fiuith,  hatred,  aversion;  fuathas,  a  fright. 
Maueh,  pasture  :  Feur,  grass. 
Mabool,  a  flood;  bool  like  Fluich,  wet. 
Moto  (Syriac),  stretched  out ;  mothakh,  tostietch  out;  muiad,  tocjclcnd: 

Fad,  long. 
Matto,  a  plantation  :  Fiodh,  wood. 

FIFTH    GROUP. 

Maizai  (Syriac),  to  heat;  like  Hebrew  aish,  fire;  like  Gaelic  Teas, 

heat. 
Maskeel,  skilful;  ma  prefixed;  s  prefixed;  keel  like  Ciall,  sense. 
Mensgain,  a  player,  a  singer ;  gain  like  Can,  say,  sing. 
Maisheev,  a  restorer,  perhaps  like  Ais,  back,  back  again;   shecv  like 

gabh,  take.     See  the  third  group  under  the  letter  sameeli. 
Migrosh,  suburbs;    mi  like  Uira,  around;   grosh  like  cathair  (the  t 

silent),  a  city. 
Maisav,  a  circular  seat :  Uim,  around ;  suidh,  sit. 
Migdol,  a  tower  ;  dol  like  Tula,  a  hill. 
Medeevoh,  dissolving,  melting;   ed  like  Ad  (obs.),  water;  or  eev  like 

abh,  water. 


38  HEBREW    AND     GAELIC. 

NUN. 

The  fourteenth  Hebrew  letter. 

Some  Hebrew  and  Gaelic  words  are  alike  in  meaning  and  sound, 
except  that  an  initial  n  is  either  added  in  Hebrew,  or  omitted  in 
Gaelic ;  either  n,  or  n  followed  by  a  vowel-sound. 

FIRST    GROUP. 

Words  which  begin  with  n  in  both  languages. 
Neetam,  obscured ;  like  Nochd,  night. 
Nekaivoh,  a  female:  Nighean,  a  daughter. 
Niaih,  to  reject :  Neo,  not. 

Noso,  to  lift  up :  Nios,  a  top,  a  summit ;  a  nios,  up. 
Nozem,  a  nose-ring  :  Nios,  a  top,  a  summit. 

It  would  be  a  mistake  to  suppose  that  nios  was  bad  Gaelic  and  a 
foreign  word ;  the  adverb  a  nios,  up,  is  a  proof  of  this. 

SECOND    GROUP. 

An  initial  n  is  either  added  in  Hebrew,  or  omitted  in  Gaelic. 
Noshakh,  to  bite  :  Sgath,  cut,  bite;  n  prefixed;  s  omitted  before  #. 
Noud,  a  leather-bottle  :  perhaps  like  At,  a  swelling,  a  bulging. 
Naid,  a  mound  :  At,  a  swelling,  a  prominence. 
Nohak,  to  brag  :  Eigh,  a  erg. 

Noaph,  to  be  excited,  roused ;  noa  prefixed  ;  ph  like  Fuath,  anger. 
Nooph,  to  sprinkle:  Abh,  water. 
No,  half-boiled  :  Amh,  unboiled. 
Nova,  to  flow:  Abh,  water. 
Novee,    a  prophet;    nevoo,  prophecy ;    nibro,  to  prophesy;    ree  liko 

Faidh,  a  prophet. 
Novveh,  beautiful;  veh  like  Boidheach,  pretty. 
Nakhath,  rest ;  kath  perhaps  like  Codal,  cod-al,  sleep. 
Novat,  to  investigate,  look  into :  Beachd,  vision. 

Noukeph,  a  beating,  knocking;  nooaph,  to  hurt,  to  thrust:  Caob,  strike. 
Novoun,  full  of  understanding  :  Mein,  mind;  m  to  v. 
Nokhoun,   certain,  fixed:    Comhnuidh,   a   habitation.      See   Hebrew 

makhaneh,  a  camp. 
Nekhaioh,  painful ;  Gath,  a  sting. 
Nog  A,  to  reach,  to  touch :  Aig,  at. 

Nothan,  to  give,  to  place  ;  than  perhaps  like  Daignich,  establish. 
Nehee,  lamenting :  Och,  alas. 
Nogah,  to  shine,  to  illuminate :  Gath,  a  ray  of  light. 


SAMECH.  3!) 

Nohor,  a  river  :  B.uith,fiotv. 

Nouzleem,  running  uatcrs ;  n  prefixed;  ouz  like  Uisge,  uis-ge,  water. 

Noveh,  a  habitation  ;  veh  like  Both,  a  hut. 

Neokoh,  groaning  :  Eigh,  a  cry  ;  earnest,  entreaty. 

Nokav,  an  excavation ;  n  prefixed;  k  prefixed;  av  like  IJamh,  a  cave. 

Nevel,  a  drum  :  Buail,  strike. 

Nohar,  to  brighten;  like  Hebrew  oor,  to  illuminate;  like  Gaelic  Brath, 

fire;  b  omitted. 
Nolo,  to  accomplish  :  Uile,  all. 
Nokhoun,  correct :  Eagnaidh,  correct. 

Nigas,  to  exact;  nougais,  persecution;  Cis,  a  tax  (is  cis  good  Gaelic  ?). 
Novakh,  to  bark ;  va\h  like  Focal,  foc-al,  a  word. 
Nikhmor,  shrivelled  by  fire  ;  wo>- like  Brath,/>-£. 
Nogad,  to  declare  :  Guth,  a  voice. 
Nogain,    to   sing;    xogax,   to  play  upon   an    instrument;    negeenou, 

melody  :  Can,  say,  sing  (hence  Latin  cano). 
Nokhaii,  no-khar,  to  discern  :    Cridhe,  the  heart  (figuratively  for  the 

seat  of  mind). 
Nokhath,  no-khath,  to  penetrate  :  Gath,  a  dart. 
Nomas,  n-omas,  to  melt,  to  dissolve  ;  om  like  Abh,  water  ;  bh  to  m. 
Naar,  a  youth,  a  lad;  naaroh,  a  damsel:  Ur,  young. 

THIRD    GROUP. 

Negdee,  before  me  ;  neged,  to  reject :  An  aghaidh,  opposite,  against. 
Noiiam,  to  bellow :  perhaps  like  Fuaim,  a  noise;  n  prefixed;  /omitted. 


SAMECH. 

The  fifteenth  Hebrew  letter. 

Some  Hebrew  and  Gaelic  words  are  alike  in  meaning  and  sound, 
except  that  an  initial  s  is  either  added  in  Hebrew,  or  omitted  in 
Gaelic ;  either  s,  or  *  followed  by  a  vowel-sound. 

FIRST    GROUP. 

Words  which  begin  with  s  in  both  languages. 

Soor,  to  separate  :   Sreath,  a  row  (to  place  in  rows). 

Siryoun,  a  coat  of  mail:  Sreath,  a  row  (material  in  rows). 

Sookoh,  sukkoh,  sukoh,  a  booth,  shelter,  tabernacle  ;  sikooth,  shelter ; 

sokhakh,  to  protect;  sikhooth,  a  protection;  sookhoh,  an  awning; 

soiuiakii,  sokakii,  to  enclose,  protect :  Sgiath,  a  wing;  a  projection; 

shelter  ;  a  shield. 


40  HEBREW    AND     GAELIC. 

Sakhroh,  sotjkhairoh,  property,  merchandise ;  perhaps  from  being  in 
sacks  (compare  with  the  rude  word  bagman) :  Sac,  a  sack,  a  bag. 

Soukhair,  a  merchant,  from  sakhroh,  merchandise  ;  sakh  or  soukh  like 
Gaelic  Sac ;  air  like  fear  (in  composition — ar),  a  man. 

Sekhee,  sweepings  ;  perhaps  like  Sguab,  sweep. 

Seder,  system,  regularity  :  Sreath,  a  row. 

Sela,  a  cleft  in  a  rock :  perhaps  like  Sgoilt,  cleave. 

SECOND     GROUP. 

An  initial  *  is  either  added  in  Hebrew,  or  omitted  in  Gaelic ;  either  s, 
or  *  followed  by  a  vowel-sound. 

Sophar,  to  cypher;  to  number  ;  to  relate;  sippair,  to  account:  Abair, 

say. 
Sevokh,  a  thicket ;  se  prefixed;  vo  like  Fiodh,  wood. 
Sooth,  a  vesture  :  Eid,  to  clothe. 
Sooo,  to  turn  back:  perhaps  like  Ais,  back. 
Saiphel,  a  bowl :  perhaps  like  Ubhall,  an  apple  (in  both  there  is  the 

idea  of  roundness) . 
Sotar,  to  hide :  perhaps  Tir,  earth  (suppose  to  cover  with  earth). 
Sokhav,  to  drag  away  :  Gabh,  take. 
Souph,  the  hinder  end:  Ais,  behind. 

Soval,  to  burden;  saivel,  burden;  el  like  Uallach,  uall-ach,  a  burden. 
Soor,  to  depart :  Ruith,  run. 
Sekharkhar,  to  beat  quickly,  as  the  heart :  se  prefixed ;  khar  repeated  : 

khar  like  Crith,  shake ;  also  like  cridhe,  the  heart. 
Salokh,  to  pardon :  Logh,  pardon. 
Seaith,  a  swelling  :  At,  a  swelling. 
Solal,  to  be  raised  up;  soloh,  to  elevate;  solool,  a  raised  pathway ; 

souleloh,  a  rampart;  soulom,  a  ladder :  Ailt,  high. 
Sokhal,  to  become  viise :  Ciall,  sense. 

Sokhal,  to  act  foolishly  :  perhaps  As,  out  of;  ciall,  sense. 
Sar,  a  ruler;  sorar,  to  rule:  perhaps  Ard,  high;  or  sreath,  a  rank, 

a  row  ;  sreathaich,  arrange. 
Soroh,  rebelliously :  perhaps  At,  fight. 

Sovav,  to  surround ;  s  prefixed;  ov  like  Uim,  around ;  m  to  v. 
Sokhor,  so-khor,  a  place  for  traffic;  Creic,  sell. 
Solaph,  so-laph,  to  bend :  Lub,  bend. 
Sela,  se-la,  a  rock  :  Lia,  a  stone. 
Sokal,  so-kal,  to  stone,  to  remove  stones  ;  sokal,  so-kal,  to  stone,  to  pelt : 

Clach,  a  stone. 


AYIN.  41 

THIRD    GROUP. 

A  conjecture  is  offered  for  the  consideration  of  the  reader.  Is  Hebrew 
initial  s  sometimes  interchangeable  or  commutable  with  Celtic 
initial  c  or  g?  See  the  fourth  group  under  the  letter  shin.  I 
have  looked  under  the  letter  zain  for  similar  instances,  hut  none 
have  occurred  to  me.  See  the  fourth  group  under  the  letter  tsade. 

Sela,  a  rock:  perhaps  akin  to  Clach,  a  stone;  or  lia,  a  stone ;  se 
prefixed. 

Somakh,  som-akh,  to  support :  Cum,  hold. 

Seer,  a  pot,  a  pan  :  Cro,  anything  round. 


AYIN. 

The  sixteenth  Hebrew  letter.  The  sound  of  this  letter  is  not 
known  with  certainty.  It  has  sometimes  been  represented  by  g ; 
sometimes  at  the  beginning  of  a  word  by  gn,  and  at  the  end  of  a  word 
by  ng.  In  some  works,  in  writing  Hebrew  in  English  letters,  it  is 
passed  over  altogether.  In  some  works,  where  Hebrew  is  given  in 
English  letters,  this  letter  is  given  in  the  Hebrew  character.  The  way 
of  representing  it  here  is  that  followed  by  Aaron  Pick  in  his  Bible- 
Student's  Concordance;  it  is  hero  represented  sometimes  by  o,  sometimes 
by  a,  or  i,  e,  or  u. 

FIRST   GROUP. 

Words  which  in  Hebrew  begin  with  ayin,  and  in  Gaelic  with  a  vowel. 

Oor,  to  start  quickly,  to  awake  :  Eirich,  eir-ich,  rise. 

Olou,  to  ascend;  olouth,  ascending;  alleeyoh,  an  ascent;   alliyoh, 

an  upper  room;  olaz,  to  exult,  to  rejoice;  AL,upon;  ouloh,  ascension 

(a  burnt-offering) :  Ailt,  high. 
Edai  (Syriac),  odath  (Syriac),  odoh  (Chaldee),  to  pass  away:  Uidhe, 

a  step. 
Oud,  again  :  Ath,  again. 
Ool,  an  infant;    elem,  a  lad;   oulail,  offspring ;    odlailoh,  a  small 

grape,  not  full  grown:  Al,  a  brood  ;  young  of  any  kind. 
Oulom,  everlasting  ;  like  Uile,  all;  am,  time. 
Avoor,  old  corn  :  Arbhar,  corn. 

Aroogoh,  a  raised  bed  in  a  garden  :  perhaps  Ard,  high. 
Ouneg,  delight ;  onag,  to  delight  oneself ;  Aoibhneach,  pleasant. 
Oul,  a  burden:  Uallach,  a  burden. 

Ivvaid,  to  surround ;  ivv  like  Uim,  around;  aid  like  uidhe,  a  step. 
Ummath,  corresponding  to,  like:  Amhuil,  amh-uil,  like. 


42  HEBREW    AND     GAELIC. 

SECOND    GROUP. 

An  initial  vowel-sound  is  either  added  in  Hebrew,  or  an  initial  vowel 

is  omitted  in  Gaelic. 
Aiyer,  ai-ver,  over,  beyond ;  ovar,  o-var ;  ibrar,  to  pass  over :  Barr,  top. 
Ophor,  o-phor,  dust :  Bruth,  bruise. 
Ovoor,  o-voor,  a  grain  of  corn,  produce  :  Beir,  produce. 
Oman,  oman,  to  trust :  perhaps  like  Bun,  a  foundation. 
Okov,  o-kov,  crooked ;  okaiv,  the  heel,  from  okov;  or  okov  from  okaiv; 

okotjv,  o-kouv,  unlevelled;  okav,  to  supplant  (suppose  to  trip  up) ; 

okav,  to  detain,  restrain  :  Cub,  bend. 
Okhas,  o-khas,  a  tinkling  ornament  for  the  feet:  perhaps  like  Cos,  afoot. 
Ophi,  o-phi,  a  bough  :  Fiodh,  wood. 
Ouphel,  ou-phel,  a  hill,  a  mount;    orHAL,  o-phal,  to  sivell :   Meall, 

a  hill  ;  m  to  ph. 
Agvoh,  affection  ;  the  gv  like  Caomh,  dear. 
Omol,  o-mol,  weariness  :  Meil,  grind. 
Ooph,  to  Jig;  the  ph  like /in  Fogair,  expel. 
Ad,  unto:  Do,  to. 

Aider,  eder,  e-der,  a  herd :  Treud,  a  herd. 
Okar,  o-kar,  to  root  out,  to  disable :  Gearr,  cut. 
Otoh,  o-toh,  to  veil,  to  cover :  Tigh,  a  house  (hence  Latin  tego). 
Oogol,  oo-gol,  round:  Calbh,  a  head. 
Ovad,  to  serve;  ayoudoh,  service:  Fo,  under ;  the  preposition  turned 

into  a  verb. 

THIRD    GROUP. 

Perhaps  at  the  beginning  of  the  word,  a  consonant  is  either  omitted  in 
Hebrew,  or  added  in  Gaelic.  This  is  a  conjecture  offered  for  the 
consideration  of  the  reader.  See  the  third  group  under  the  letter 
aleph,  the  third  group  under  the  letter  he,  and  the  second  group 
under  the  letter  yod. 

Oleii,  a  leaf:  Bileach,  bil-each,  a  leaf;  b  omitted. 

Ain,  a  fountain;  see  Hebrev/  maayon,  a  fountain :  Buinne,  a  pool  in  a 
river ;  b  omitted. 

Oroh,  to  strip,  to  bare :  Creach,  a  raid,  a  foray ;  c  omitted. 

Orats,  to  dread :  Crith,  to  tremble;  c  omitted. 

Onee,  poor,  afflicted :   Caoin,  lament  ;  c  omitted. 

Eer,  a  city  :  Cathair  (the  t  silent),  a  city  ;  c  omitted. 

Osas,  to  tread  down  :  Cos,  afoot;  c  omitted. 

Ovoh,  to  be  bent  down  :  Cub,  bend;  c  omitted. 

Oroom,  cunning,  subtle  :  Crom,  crooked;  c  omitted. 


PE.  43 

Innoii,  to  afflict:  Guin,  wound;  g  omitted. 

ObaHj  a  bare  place  ;  Garbh,  rough,  rugged  ;  g  omitted. 

Egloh,  a  calf:  Laogh,  a  calf;  g  omitted ;  e  prefixed. 

Onoh,  to  answer,  to  express ;  ounoh,  a  testimony ;  onok,  to  answer  : 
Fonn,  an  air,  a  tune;  f  omitted. 

Aits,  a  tree,  wood,  a  piece  of  wood;  ait,  a  reed-pen:  Fiodh,  wood; 
f  omitted. 

Olam,  concealed :  Feile,  a  covering  ;  f  omitted. 

Eeh  (Syriac),  a  watcher:  Faire,  a  watch,  a  guard;  f  omitted. 

Osoh,  to  make,  let  grow,  to  do  :  Faa,  grow  ;  f  omitted. 

Ain,  ayin,  the  eye.  A  fanciful  conjecture  is  offered  for  the  consideration 
of  the  reader.  I  connect  ain,  the  eye,  with  ain,  a  fountain,  a  spring, 
as  on  a  hill-side  a  round  spring  may  be  likened  to  the  eye  of  the 
hill.  Ain,  a  fountain,  is  akin  to  the  Gaelic  JBuinne,  a  pool  in  a 
stream;  b  omitted.     Hence  Latin  fons. 

Okakh,  to  prepare,  arrange  :  Sreath,  a  row;  s  omitted. 

FOURTH    GROUP. 

Egloh,  a  calf:  perhaps  like  Gaelic  Laogh,  a  calf ;  g  prefixed ;  e  pre- 
fixed. Laogh  is  said  to  be  the  most  difficult  word  in  Gaelic  for  a 
non-Gael  to  pronounce. 

Arophei.,  thick  darkness ;  aro  like  Ciar,  dark ;  c  omitted ;  phel  like 
feile,  a  covering. 

Am,  a  people  :  Aiteam,  a  people,  a  tribe. 

PE. 

The  seventeenth  Hebrew  letter. 

Some  Hebrew  and  Gaelic  words  are  alike  in  meaning  and  sound, 
except  that  an  initial  p  is  either  added  in  Hebrew,  or  omitted  in 
Gaelic;  either^,  or p  followed  by  a  vowel-sound. 

FIRST  group. 

AVords  which  begin  with  p  in  both  languages. 

Porash,  to  distinguish,  to  divide;  porau,  to  part,  to  separate ;  poroshoh, 

a  separate  sum:  Pairt,  a  part  (is  pairt  good  Gaelic?). 
Potsoh,  to  open,  to  release;  pithkhoun,  a  full  opening  ;  pothak,  to  open, 
to  engrave  ;  pithgom,  a  decree;  pithuk,  an  engraving ;  Pit,  a  hollow. 
Petseeroh,  a  fie;  pouthouth,  the  socket  in  ivhich  the  hinge  moves 
(in  all  these  the  idea  is  something  hollow,  as  the  sunk  line  on 
engraved  metal)  ;  like  Gaelic  Pit,  a  hollow. 


44  HEBREW    AND     GAELIC. 

SECOND     GROUr. 

An  initial  p  is  either  added  in  Hebrew,  or  omitted  in  Gaelic. 
Paam,  time,  a  time ;  Am,  time. 
Polat,  to  deliver ;  ol  like  Al,  young  of  any  hind. 
Poga,  pogash,  to  meet,  to  come  to :  Aig,  at  (the  preposition  turned  into 

a  verb)  ;  or  SLgaiAh,  face. 
Peneemee,  inside  :  Ann,  in. 
Potiiar,  to  interpret :  perhaps  Eadar,  between. 
Pkkhor,  pe-khor  (Syriac),  a  potter  ;  Cre,  earth. 

THIRD    GROUP. 

Words  which  begin  with  p  in  Hebrew,  and  with  b  in  Gaelic. 
Phorv.kh,  harshness,  severity:  perhaps  like  Barr,  top  (overbearing). 
Porats,  to  break  forth  ;  porakh,  to  throw  out  or  shoot  :  Bruchd,  burst 

forth. 
Porosh,  a  rider  ;  perhaps  like  puroh,  a  branch;  pekis,  a  claw  :  Beir, 

carry. 
Pethen,  an  asp  ;  pe  like  Beach,  a  bee. 
Poroor,  a  swelling,  increasing  as  water  boils  over :   Barr,  top  ;  or  mor, 

great. 
Paiair,  an  ornamental  head-dress;  partaimeem  (Chaldce)  chiefs:  Barr, 

top. 
Poor,  to  break  asunder,  to  disannul ;   pooroh,  a  wine-press :  Brnth, 

bruise,  crush. 
Peair,  comely;  poar,  to  beautify:  Briadha,  pretty;  Lowland-Scotch, 

braw. 
Poar,  to  be  praiseworthy :  perhaps  like  Mor,  great. 
Penninah,  a  coral :  perhaps  like  Ban,  white. 
Pateesh,  an  iron-hammer :  Bat,  strike. 
Pokoh,  a  cow;  po  like  Bo,  an  ox. 
Pii.laid,  to  decide  :  Beul,  the  month. 
Porour,  an  iron  pot :  the  Hebrew  for  iron  like  Gaelic  Brath,y?*-e;  as 

fire  was  used  in  procuring  or  working  iron. 
Pinniaii,  a  battlement:  Beinn.  a  hill. 
Poal,  to  work;  in  sound  like  Buail,  smite,  thrash. 
Peuazah,  a  town :  Barr,  a  height  (and  applied  to  towns  as  these  for 

security  were  built  on  heights). 
Path,  a  bit,  a  piece,  a  morsel;  like  Hebrew  pe,  a  mouth;  like  Gaelic 

Bid  (obs.),  nip,  pinch;  bideag,  a  morsel. 
Pokakh,  to  see;  )  okad,  to  review :  Beachd,  vision. 


TSADE.  45 

FOURTH    GROCr. 

Words  which  begin  with  p  in  Hebrew,  and  with  /  in  Gaelic. 
Pothal,  to  spin,  to  twist:  ~Fi\\,fold. 
Paamon,  a  bell :  perhaps  like  Fuaim,  noise. 
Posoh,  to  spread  itself,  to  increase  :  Fas,  grow. 
Poshat,  posh-at,  to  strip,  to  plunder  :  Fas,  lay  waste. 

fifth  group. 

Words  which  begin  with  p  in  Hebrew,  and  with  m  in  Gaelic. 
Polakh,  to  grind,  to  powder :  Meil,  grind. 
Pele,  phele,  wonderful ;  polo,  to  be  wondered  at;  peleeoh,  a  wonder  : 

Miorbhuil,  a  wonder,  from  meur,  finger  ;  and  Beal,  the  god  Belus, 

or  Bel. 

sixth  group. 
Pe,  the  mouth;  a  little  like  Beul,  the  mouth. 
Poar,  to  open  the  mouth  wide  ;  like  Hebrew  pe  ;  pe  like  Gaelic  Abair, 

a-bai-r,  speak  :  also  like  aber,  the  month  of  a  river. 
Pardais,  paradise,  ornamental  pleasure-ground  :   perhaps  like  Briadha, 

pretty  ;  ais  (obs.),  a  covert. 
Is  it  the  case  that  Hebrew  initial  p  sometimes  corresponds  to  Celtic 

initial  t,  as  in  the  three  following  ? 
Ponoh,  to  turn  :  Tionndaidh,  tionn-daidh,  turn. 
Poon,  to  pine  away  :  Tana,  thin. 
Par,  a  bull  ■  Tarbh,  a  bull. 

TSADE. 

The  eighteenth  Hebrew  letter. 

Some  Hebrew  and  Gaelic  words  are  alike  in  meaning  and  sound, 
except  that  either  the  Hebrew  prefixes  ts,  or  the  Gaelic  omits  ts  at  the 
beginning  of  a  word  ;  either  ts,  or  ts  followed  by  a  vowel-sound. 

.Some  Hebrew  words  beginning  with  ts  are  like  Gaelic  words 
beginning  with  t. 

Some  Hebrew  words  beginning  with  ts  are  like  Gaelic  words 
beginning  with  s. 

first  group. 

In  Hebrew  the  word  begins  with  ts,  and  in  Gaelic  with  t  or  d. 
Tsooth,  to  set  on  fire;  tsiyoh,  a  dry  waste  or  barren  place  :  Teas,  heat ; 

teo,  teodh,  hot. 
Tsoraph,  to  refine,  purify  (suppose  to  wash) ;  the  or  perhaps  like  Doir, 

water. 


46  HEBREW    AND     GAELIC. 

Tsour,  tsoor,  a  rock,  a  stone,  a  Jlint  ;  tseer,  an  image  of  stone:  Torr, 
a  hill;  or  sgor,  a  rock. 

SECOND     GROUP. 

At  the  beginning  of  a  word,  ts  is  either  added  in  Hebrew,  or  omitted 

in  Gaelic ;    either  ts,  or  ts  followed   by  a  vowel-sound :    about 

fourteen  instances. 
Tsolakh,  ts-ol-akh,  to  advance,  to  prosper;  ol  like  Al,  nourish,  grow ; 

or  ailt,  high. 
Tsophan,  tso-phan,  to  conceal :  Bun,  a  foundation. 
Tsaueek,  tsa-deek,  just,  righteous;   tsedekh,  tse-dekh,  righteousness: 

Deagh,  good. 
Tsovar,  tso-var,  to  heap  up :  Barr,  top  ;  or  beir,  carry. 
Tsoak,  ts-oak,  to  call  out;  tseokoh,  ts-eokoh,  a  loud  cry  ;  tsokhakii, 

ts-okh-akh,  to  laugh  incredulously  :  Eigh,  a  cry,  a  shout. 
Tsohal,  to  shout  for  joy  :  Iolach,  a  shout. 
Tsoeer,  ts-oeer,  young,  small:  Ur,  young. 
Tseer,  tsee-r,  an  express;  the  r  like  liuith,  run. 
Tsoad,  ts-oad,  to  march,  to  step  ;   tsaad,  a  step ;    tsoou,  to   hunt,  to 

pursue  ;  tsoyid,  venison,  game:  Uidhe,  a  step,  a  journey. 
Tsouphar,  tsou-phar,  morning  (early) :  Brath,  fire  ;  the  fire  in  the  east. 

THIRD    GROUP. 

In  Hebrew  the  word  begins  with  ts,  and  in  Gaelic  with  s  ;  the  sound 

of  an  initial  t  is  either  added  in  Hebrew,  or  omitted  in  Gaelic : 

six  instances. 
Tsorar,    to   oppress;    tsoroh,   oppression;    tsourair,    an    oppressor: 

Saraich,  sar-aich,  oppress. 
Tsourair,  tsour-air,  an  oppressor,  from  tsoroh;    tsour  like  Saraick, 

sar-aich,  oppress;  air  like  fear  (in  composition  ar),  a  man. 
Tsail,  a  projection  :  Sail,  a  heel. 
Tseer,  fashion,  fashioned :  Sreath,  a  row,  a  line. 
Tsekheeakh,  exposed  to  the  sun  :  Soar,  dry. 

FOURTH     GROUP. 

Some  Hebrew  words  beginning  with  ts  are  like  Gaelic  words  beginning 
with  sg.  Is  this  a  case  when  Hebrew  s  is  commutable  with  Celtic 
g  ?     See  the  third  group  under  the  letter  samech. 

Tsail,  a  shade ;  tsolal,  shaded;  tsblem,  a  shadow :  Sgail,  a  shade. 

Tsour,  tsoor,  a  rock,  a  stone,  a  Jlint;  tsoraath,  leprosy;  tsorooa, 
leprous  (from  the  roughness  of  the  skin) ;  TSBBB,  an  image  of  stone  : 
Sgor,  a  rock  ;  also  like  torr,  a  hill. 


KOPII.  47 

FIFTH    GROUP. 

A  conjecture  is  offered  for  the  consideration  of  the  reader.  Is  it  the 
case  that  at  the  beginning  of  a  word,  Hebrew  ts  sometimes  corre- 
sponds to  Gaelic  initial  c  or  g,  as  in  the  following  ? 

Tseets,  a  shining  plate  of  metal:  Gath,  a  ray  of  light. 

Tsohar,  an  aperture  for  light :  Cro,  the  eye  of  a  needle. 

Tsomeed,  tsom-eed,  a  fastening  :  Cum,  hold. 

Tsippoh,  to  overlay,  to  cover  :  Cab,  a  head. 

Also  see  the  third  group  under  the  letter  tov. 

KOPII. 

Tho  nineteenth  Hebrew  letter — koph  or  quoph.  Sometimes  repre- 
sented by  q  or  qu  ;  here  represented  by  k. 

Some  Hebrew  and  Gaelic  words  are  alike  in  meaning  and  sound, 
except  that  either  the  Hebrew  prefixes  k,  or  the  Gaelic  omits  an  initial 
c  or  g ;  either  k,  or  k  followed  by  a  vowel-sound. 

Some  Hebrew  and  Gaelic  words  are  alike  in  meaning  and  sound, 
except  that  an  initial  *  is  either  omitted  in  Hebrew,  or  added  in  Gaelic  ; 
as  Hebrew  koot,  kee,  like  Gaelic  sgeith;  Hebrew  kain  like  Gaelic 
sgian. 

first  group. 

Words  which  begin  with  k  in  Hebrew,  and  with  c  or  g  in  Gaelic. 
Koom,  to  establish  ;  koumets,  a  handful :   Cum,  hold,  withhold ;  hold  as 

in  the  hand. 
Killail,  to  esteem  lightly ;  kolal,  to  lighten:  perhaps  Caol,  little,  small. 
Koon,  to  lament :  Caoin,  lament. 
Koro,  to  cull ;  koho,  to  be  called,  named  ;  korats,  to  taunt;  kerueem, 

the  invited  :  Gaoir,  noise. 
Korats,  to  nip,  to  pinch  :  perhaps  Gearr,  cut. 

Koul,  a  voice,  noise  ;  koulovtii,  a  loud  voice,  thunder  :  Glaodh,  call. 
Keren,  a  horn;  keren,  a  projecting  corner ;  a  corner;  karno  (Chaldee), 

a  flute,  cornet,  horn ;  Corn,  a  horn,  a  trumpet;  corr,  a  horn;  corran, 

a  point  of  land  reaching  far  into  the  sea. 
Korav,  to  bring  near :  perhaps  like  Cior  (obs.),  the  hand. 
Koshav,  to  attend :  perhaps  like  Cos,  afoot. 
Kardoun,  an  axe;  kora,  to  rend  asunder :  Gearr,  cut. 
Karkar,  to  root  out ;  kar  repeated  :  Gearr,  cut. 
Kouroh,  a  beam  of  a  house;  a  little  like  Crann,  a  beam. 
Kuroh,  the  stomach  :  perhaps  like  Gabh,  receive  (the  receptacle). 
Kourakh,  bold:  Garbh,  harsh,  haughty. 


48  HEBREW     AND     GAELIC. 

Konoh,  to  buy  ;  kinyox,  a  purchase ;  Ceannaich,  to  buy. 

Keoroh,  a  dish;  kaaroh,  a  deep  dish:  Cro,  anything  round;  coire, 
a  hollow. 

Keer,  a  well :  Cro,  a  circle. 

Koram,  to  cover,  skin  over ;  a  little  like  Croic,  the  skin. 

Kotsar,  to  shorten;  hot  like  Cutach,  cut-acli,  short;  eutaich,  to  shorten; 
Lowland-Scotch,  cutty. 

Kerev,  inside,  within  :  Cridhe,  the  heart. 

Kova,  to  demand  with  authority:  Gabh,  take. 

Kov,  a  measuring -line :  Caball,  cab-all,  a  rope. 

Kokas,  to  bend :  Car,  a  turn. 

Kouts,  a  thorn  :  Gath,  a  sting. 

Kotseh,  an  end,  a  corner :  perhaps  like  Gath,  a  sting,  a  point. 

Koi.oun,  contempt :  perhaps  like  Cul,  the  back. 

Kan,  a  nest;  kuxan,  to  make  a  nest.  See  gan,  a  garden;  gonan,  to 
enclose.  Under  the  letter  kheth,  see  khonoh,  to  encamp :  under 
the  letter  kaph,  see  koon,  to  erect,  to  establish;  kas,  a  basis; 
koxas,  konash,  to  gather  into  a  place  of  security.  Also  see 
makhaneh,  a  camp.  Of  all  these  the  idea  is  an  enclosure.  Also 
see  tekhoo.voh,  establishment,  estate,  property;  tikhain,  to  ordain  ; 
TiKHouv,  established.  All  these  Hebrew  words  are  akin  to  each 
other,  and  to  the  Gaelic  Combnuidh,  comhn-uidh,  a  dwelliny ; 
an  comhnuidh,  continually. 

SECOND     GROUP. 

An  initial  k,  or  this  sound  is  either  added  in  Hebrew,  or  omitted  in 
Gaelic ;  either  /;,  or  k  followed  by  a  vowel-sound. 

Kohal,  to  assemble;  kohol,  an  assembly;  kouheleth,  a  collector. 
Under  the  letter  kaph,  see  kohal,  to  assemble;  kohol,  an  assembly  ; 
K.0UL,  all  things,  everything  ;  kol,  all;  koloh,  to  complete:  under 
the  letter  kheth,  see  khail,  an  army.  All  these  Hebrew  words 
are  akin  to  each  other,  and  to  the  Gaelic  Uile,  all. 

Koor,  to  cause  to  spring  up  :  Eirich,  eir-ich,  rise. 

Ivor,  cold;  kerakh,  a  clear  stone;  ice:  Eeodh,  freeze. 

Kodar,  to  darken  ;  kitreex,  obscure  things  ;  koudair,  obscure  :  Dorch, 
dark. 

Koton,  little  :  Tana,  thin,  small. 

Kino,  envy  :  Tnu,  envy. 

Kovar,  to  bury ;  var  like  Barr,  a  top  (a  heap). 

Koshav,  to  attend :  Ais,  behind. 

Korouv,  near,  at  hand :  Roi,  before. 


EESH.  49 

THIRD    GROUP. 

An  initial  s  is  either  omitted  in  Hebrew,  or  added  in  Gaelic. 

Koot,  to  loathe;  kee,  to  vomit:  Sgeith,  to  vomit. 

Kain,  a  weapon  with  a  long  handle  :  Sgian,  a  knife.  Under  the  letter 
kaph,  see  Hebrew  kohoh,  dim,  like  Gaelic  sgiath,  a  shade;  Hebrew 
koxoph,  kon-oph,  a  wing,  like  Gaelic  sgiathan,  a  little  wing  :  also 
see  Hebrew  goloh,  to  reveal,  like  Gaelic  sgeul,  a  tale;  instances 
where  s  is  similarly  treated. 

EESH. 

The  twentieth  Hebrew  letter.  Gaelic  r  is  called  rius,  the  alder-tree. 

Some  Hebrew  words  beginning  with  r  are  in  meaning  and  sound 
like  Gaelic  words  beginning  with  c  or  g ;  an  initial  c  or  g,  or  this  sound, 
being  either  omitted  in  Hebrew,  or  added  in  Gaelic ;  either  c  or  g,  or 
one  of  these  followed  by  a  vowel. 

FIRST   GROUP. 

Words  which  begin  with  r  in  both  languages. 
Eoka,  to  beat  out,  to  extend,  to  expand;  rokak,  to  draw  forth :  Euig, 

reach,  extend. 
Eotoh,  to  satiate  with  moisture,  or  by  watering  the  ground ;  roots,  to 
run;    rots,  a  runner;    rohat,  a  trough,  a  channel;   rodaph,  to 
pursue;  reer,  saliva;  reer,  juice,  fluid ;  rouk,  saliva;  rohakh, 
to  spit :  Euith,  run,  flow. 
Eeshoun,./?^;  roush,  a  chief ',  a  head ;  uxv,achief;  rozoun,  a  prince : 

Eoi,  before. 
Einnoh,  a  shout;  ronan,  to  sing ;  ronoh,  to  sound,  to  sing ;  ronnan, 

to  shout :  Eann,  a  poem ;  oran,  a  song. 
Eov,  much ;   ray,  abundance;   rokhav,  to  enlarge;    rovov,  rovav,  to 

multiply ;  rovoh,  satiety,  fulness  :  Eo,  very,  much,  exceedingly. 
Eovoh,  satiety,  fulness;  ro  like  Eo,  much;  voh  like  biadh,  food. 
Eabbeem,  a  multitude,  many :  Eo,  much.    Hebrew  am,  people  :  perhaps 
like  Gaelic  Aiteam,  people. 

second   group. 
An  initial  r  either  added  in  Hebrew,  or  omitted  in  Gaelic. 
Eedeed,  a  robe  :  Eid,  clothe. 
Ear,  but :  Ach,  but. 

third  group. 
A  conjectural  affinity  is  offered  for  the  consideration  of  the  reader : 
an  initial  c  or  g,  or  this  sound,  is  either  omitted  in  Hebrew,  or 
in  Gaelic. 


50  HEBREW    AND    GAELIC. 

Eoal,  to  be  giddy,  to  stagger;  rogaz,  to  tremble;  rotsats,  to  chatter  ; 

raash,  trembling;  an  earthquake;  road,  raad,  trembling;  rogash, 

to  rage,  to  storm  (to  shake  with  rage) ;  rokhaph,  to  flutter ;  roash, 

to  bluster,  to  shake;   raayoun,  intentions,  thoughts:    Cridhe,  the 

heart  (figuratively  the  seat  of  mind). 
Rovats,  to  crouch  down;  rophats,  to  tread  down  :  Crub,  crouch. 
Resheth,  a  net ;  rukamtee,  embroidered ;  Car,  a  turn. 
Raia,  raiah,  a  friend;  reooth,  a  companion;  roa,  to  be  social;  raioh, 

to  befriend:  Car,  a  friend;  car,  friendly. 
Reek,  empty;    reek,  to  empty;   raikom,  empty,  in  vain;   rokakh,  to 

empty :  Creach,  plunder,  pillage. 
Root,  hunger :  Ocras,  hunger;  c  omitted,  o  omitted. 
Rotsoh,  to  be  willing ;   rotsoun,  acceptance,  will;    reooth  (Chaldee), 

pleasure :  Gradh,  affection. 
Rom,  great :  Garbh,  large  ;  g  omitted  ;  bh  to  b  ;  b  to  m. 
Revooth,  greatness  :  Garbh,  huge,  &c. 
Rosham,  to  note ;  the  r  perhaps  like  Gearr,  cut;  or  garbh,  rough;  or 

sgriobh,  write;  g  omitted. 
If  any  one  were  to  say  that  Gaelic  sgriobh  was  the  daughter  of 

Latin  scribo,  he  might  be  told  that  scribo  was  the  daughter  of 

Gaelic  garbh.  It  is  not  here  admitted  that  sgriobh  is  from  scribo. 
Rooa,  to  shout :  Gaoir,  noise. 

FOURTH    GROUP. 

An  initial  letter  is  either  omitted  in  Hebrew,  or  added  in  Gaelic. 

Reet,  to  contend;  reev,  an  opponent;  reev,  a  controversy :  At,  fight ; 
a  omitted. 

Roa,  to  break  in  pieces;  reseeseem,  ruins:  Bris,  break;  b  omitted. 

Rokhash,  to  rush;  rekhesh,  a  swift  animal,  a  dromedary;  eakiiov, 
a  swift  rider,  a  chariot-driver ;  rokad,  to  dance,  jump ;  rekhev, 
a  chariot;  rekhev,  the  upper  mill-stone  (the  rider);  reek,  to 
empty,  to  pour  out  abundantly  :  Bruchd,  rush  forth;  b  omitted. 

Rokhav,  breath;  rooakh,  spirit,  breath,  wind:  perhaps  akin  to 
Bruchd,  rush  forth,  belch;  b  omitted. 

Rokav,  to  rot;  a  little  like  Breoth,  to  rot. 

In  the  four  words  below,  an  initial  /  either  omitted  in  Hebrew,  or 

added  in  Gaelic. 
Rooh,  to  feed;  roueh,  a  feeder  of  a  flock  :  Feur,  grass. 
Roupha,  a  physician,  a  healer :  perhaps  r  like  Fearr,  better. 
Rogash,  to  rage;  rougez,  anger :  Fearg,  anger;  or  crith,  shake  (with 

rage). 


SHIN  or  SIN.  51 

Eogaz,  to  shake  with  rage  :  Fearg,  anger  ;  f  omitted  ;    or  crith,  shake 

(with  rage). 
Ro,  rooh,  roua,  evil;  rooa,  to  do  evil;  rosho,  a  bad  man  ;  rosha,  to 
act  wickedly:   Droch,  bad;   d  omitted  in  Hebrew,  or  added  in 
Gaelic. 

SHIN  or  SIN. 
The  twenty-first  Hebrew  letter. 

Some  Hebrew  and  Gaelic  words  are  alike  in  meaning  and  sound, 
except  that  either  the  Hebrew  prefixes  shin  or  sin,  or  the  Gaelic  omits 
an  initial  * ;  either  s,  or  *  followed  by  a  vowel-sound. 

FIRST    GROUP. 

Words  which  begin  with  sh  or  s  in  Hebrew,  and  with  s  in  Gaelic. 
Shooth,  sheeth,  to  set,  to  place ;   shuth,  a  foundation :    Suidh,  sit  ; 

suidhich,  set,  place. 
Sheveth,  a  seat;  she  like  Suidh,  sit. 

Shokoh,  to  quiet,  to  still :  Socraich,  soc-raich,  appease,  assuage. 
Shiryoun,  a  coat  of  mail:  Sreath,  a  row  (pieces  of  metal  in  rows). 
Sourarhath,  a  display:  Sreath,  spread. 
Sereekouth,  combed :  Sreath,  a  row. 

Serod,  a  covering  :  Sreath,  spread  (the  idea  is  something  spread). 
Shogo,  to  wander :  Seachran,  seach-ran,  to  wander. 
Shakhath,  destruction  ;  shorhat,  to  slay  as  a  sacrifice :  Sgath,  consume, 

destroy. 
Sukkah,  a  covering,   a  tabernacle;   sourhoh,  a  bough;   sokhakh,   to 

protect,  to  enclose :  Sgiath,  a  wing,  shelter,  protection,  shade. 
Sakeen,  a  knife  :  Sgian,  a  knife. 

Shoroh  (Syriac),  to  let  loose ;  sorad,  to  escape:  Saor,/m. 
Shainoh,  sleep :  Suain,  sleep. 
Shaish,  six :  Se,  six. 

Shaireeth,  service ;  shorath,  to  minister,  to  attend :  Saothair,  work. 
Sak,  a  sack :  Sac,  a  sack. 
Shekets,  shikoots,  a  detestable  thing ;  shokats,  to  detest  (see  kee,  root)  : 

Sgeith,  to  vomit. 
Shelarh,  a  dart ;  perhaps  akin  to  Sealg,  to  hunt. 

THIRD    GROUP. 

An  initial  sh  or  *  is  either  added  in  Hebrew,  or  omitted  in  Gaelic ; 

either  *,  or  s  followed  by  a  vowel-sound ;  about  fifty-nine  instances. 

Shekhan,  a  resting-place;  shokhan,  to  rest,  to  dwell ;  shokhain,  an 

inhabitant.     See  makhaneh,  a  camp.     Under  the  letter  kheth,  see 


52  HEBREW    AND     GAELIC. 

khonoh,  to  encamp :  under  the  letter  kaph,  see  koon,  to  erect; 
kan,  a  basis ;  konas,  konash,  to  gather  into  a  place  of  security  : 
under  the  letter  koph,  see  kan,  a  nest;  konan,  to  make  a  nest. 
Also  see  gan,  a  garden  ;  gonan,  to  enclose  ;  mekhounoh,  a  foun- 
dation,abase;  tekhounosh, establishment,  estate, property ;  tikhoun, 
established.  Of  khonoh,  mekhaneh,  konan,  and  gonan,  the  idea 
is  an  enclosure.  All  these  Hebrew  words  are  akin  to  each  other, 
and  to  the  Gaelic  Comhnuidh,  comhn-uidh,  a  dwelling;  an 
comhnuidh,  continually. 

Shorats,  to  creep  :  perhaps  like  Ruith,  run. 

Shoveh,  sh-ov-eh,  alike,  equal ;  ov  like  Amhuil,  amh-uil,  like. 

Sholat,  sh-ol-at,  to  rule;  ol  like  Ailt,  high. 

Seeer,  seee-r,  mist,  vapour,  small  rain  :  Ruith,  flow,  run. 

Seer,  see-r,  hoar-frost ;  the  r  like  Reodh,  freeze. 

Sogav,  so-gav,  to  exalt :  Cab,  head. 

Shovar,  sho-var,  to  break,  to  break  forth ;  var  like  Bruth,  bruise,  break; 
or  bruchd,  burst  forth. 

Shever,  she-ver,  a  shivering,  a  breaking ;  Bruth,  braise,  break. 

Sho-vakh,  to  applaud :  Beuc,  utter  a  sound. 

Shokhour,  sho-khour,  black  :  Ciar,  black. 

Shoal,  sh-oal,  to  ask;  sheailoh,  a  petition  :  Iolach,  iol-ach,  a  shout. 

Shokhav,  sho-khav,  to  lie,  to  repose :  Cub,  bend. 

Shekokeem,  she-khok-eem,  skies:  perhaps  like  Cuach,  a  cup;  the  cup 
inverted. 

Saikhel,  intelligence ;  sokhal,  to  act  prudently ;  sikail,  to  act  discreetly  ; 
khel  like  Ciall,  sense. 

Shokhal,  sho-khal,  to  deprive  :  Caill,  lose. 

Sheger,  she-ger,  offspring,  increase  of  cattle;  ger  like  Greigh,  a  herd. 

Sovo,  so-vo,  to  satisfy  with  food;  vo  like  Biadh,  food. 

Shomeer,  sho-meer,  a  diamond  or  other  precious  stone  ;  meer  like  Brath, 
fire  (from  its  sparkling). 

Shaivet,  shai-vet,  a  staff,  a  sceptre ;  vet  like  Bat,  a  staff. 

Shaphreer,  sha-phreer,  a  cover i>/g  for  a  throne;  phreer  like  Baxx, 
top. 

Shophakh,  sho-phakh,  to  pour  out :  perhaps  like  Beuc,  roar,  bellow 
(pour  out  sound). 

Shailoh,  sh-ailoh,  a  descendant,  offspring :  Al,  the  young  of  any  animal. 

Sokal,  so-kal,  to  stone,  to  pelt;  sokal,  so-kal,  to  stone,  to  remove  stones; 
cal  like  Clach,  a  stone. 

Seaith,  s-eaith,  a  swelling :  At,  a  swelling. 

Shdmar,  sh-oniar,  to  observe ;  oinar  like  Amhairc,  see. 


SHIN  ok  SIN.  53 

-eor,  a  remnant;  shoar,  to  cause  to  remain;  soreed,  remainder; 

8HAIAIR,  a  remnant :  Iar,  behind. 
Shotaph,  sh-ot-aph,  to  overflow;  ot  like  Ad  (obs.),  water. 
Shad,  sh-ad,  refreshing  moisture;  ad  like  Ad,  water. 
Sar,  a  ruler :  perhaps  like  Aid,  high. 
Soton,  a  hinderer,  Satan:  perhaps  like  Ais,  back,  backward;  ton  like 

duine,  a  man. 
Sooakh,  to  utter :  seeakh,  utterance;  seeakh,  to  speak;  shooa,  a  cry 

for  help ;  shoag,  to  roar;  shooh,  to  make  a  noise  :  Eigh,  a  cry. 
Shetai,  she-tai,  both  :  Da,  two. 

Shever,  she-ver,  false;  ver  like  Fiar,  wicked,  perverse. 
Shoov,  shoo-v,  to  revoke;  shoo  either  sh  prefixed  simply,  or  like  Gaelic 

Ais,  back;  v  like  focal,  foc-al,  a  word;  also  like  beuc,  utter  a  sound 

(like  Latin  voco). 
Souvokh,  sou-vo-kh,  a  thicket;  vo  like  Fiodh,  wood. 
Shovar,  sho-var,  to  bargain,  to  sell:  perhaps  like  Margadh,  mar-gadh, 

a  market. 
Shotak,  sho-tak,  to  still,  to  quiet :  Tachd,  choke. 
Sotoh,  so-toh,  to  deviate,  to  go  aside  :  Taobh,  a  side. 
Shoushan,  sh-oush-an,  a  rose,  perhaps  a  red  rose ;  oush  like  Hebrew 

aish,  fire  ;  like  Gaelic  Teas,  heat. 
Shouham,  an  onyx  stone  ;  a  carbuncle;  a  glittering  stone ;  like  Hebrew 

aish.,  fire;  ai  omitted;  like  Teas,  heat;  teo,  hot. 
Shozaph,  sh-oz-aph,  to  shine;  oz  like  Hebrew  aish,  fire;  like  Gaelic 

Teas,  heat. 
Sholaim,  sh-olai-m,  whole;   sholam,  sh-ola-m,  to  complete ;  shillaim, 

sh-illai-m,  to  complete  :  Uile,  all. 
Shouvch,  sh-ouv-ch,  to  balance,  to  equal ;  ouv  like  Amhuil,  amh-uil, 

like. 
Shaatoh,  sh-aatoh,  progressing  :  Uidhe,  a  step. 
Sotoh,  s-otoh,  to  go  astray;  to  avoid:  Taobh,  a  ride;   or  uidhe,  a 

step. 
Shonoh,  to  repeat:  perhaps  like  Ais,  back;  fonn  (in  composition  onn), 

a  tune,  an  air. 
Shephel,  she-phel,  an  elevated  place  :  phel  like  Meall,  a  hill ;  m  to  ph. 

FOURTH  GROUP. 

A  conjectural  affinity  is  offered  for  the  consideration  of  the  reader. 
Some  Hebrew  words  are  in  meaning  and  sound  like  Gaelic  words, 
except  that  in  Hebrew  the  initial  letter  is  shin  or  sin,  and  in 
Gaelic  c  or  g.     See  the  third  group  under  the  letter  samech.     I 


54  HEBREW    AND    GAELIC. 

have  looked  under  the  letter  zain  for  similar  instances,  but  none 
have  occurred  to  me.  See  the  fourth  group  under  the  letter  tsade. 

Shophal,  shoph-al,  to  debase :  Cab,  head. 

Soom,  to  set,  to  place ;  somakh,  to  support:  Cum,  hold. 

Shoov,  to  turn,  to  return :  Cam,  bent. 

Shoor,  to  watch  :  Caithris,  a  watching. 

Sorakh,  to  interweave,  to  traverse :  Car,  a  turn. 

Shephoh,  abundance :  Cob,  plenty. 

Shoop,  to  crush  :  Caob,  strike  with  clods. 

Shoor,  an  ox :  Crodh,  cattle. 

Shoulayim,  the  skirts  of  a  garment :  Cul,  behind. 

Shovoh,  to  capture  :  Gabh,  take. 

Saph,  a  basin :  Gabh,  take,  receive. 

Shain,  a  tooth :  perhaps  akin  to  Geinn,  a  wedge. 

Sheer,  a  song  ;  singing  ;  shor,  a  singer  :  Gaoir,  noise. 

Saior,  hair  ;  soeer,  a  hairy,  rough  goat:  Garbh,  rough. 

Shaarooroh,  horrible  :  Garbh,  rough,  boisterous  ;  the  sound  repeated. 

Shokal,  sho-kal,  to  weigh  :  perhaps  like  Clach,  a  stone.    (See  mishkol.) 

Shorov,  a  dry  place,  a  barren  spot :  Garbh,  rough,  wild,  not  cultivated. 

TOV. 

The  twenty-second  Hebrew  letter. 

Some  Hebrew  and  Gaelic  words  are  alike  in  meaning  and  sound, 
except  that  either  an  initial  t  is  added  in  Hebrew,  or  omitted  in 
Gaelic ;  either  t,  or  t  followed  by  a  vowel-sound. 

FIRST    GROUP. 

Words  beginning  with  t  in  Hebrew,  and  with  d  or  t  in  Gaelic. 
Tail,  a  hill,  a  mount ;  toloul,  raised  up  ;  tail,  a  heap  of  ruins  (a  heap) ; 

toloh,  to  hang  :  Tula,  a  hill. 
Tanoor,  a  furnace  :  Teine,  fire. 
Tor,  an  ox  :  Tarbh,  a  bull. 

Tanneen,  a  serpent :  perhaps  Tana,  thin,  slim,  slender. 
Tom,  tomeem,  perfect;  tomam,  to  make  perfect :  Teoma,  correct. 
Takhtecho,  under  it :  Tigh,  a  house. 
Touar,  form,  shape  :  Dreach,  form,  shape. 

Tikvoh,  hope  ;  toukheleth,  hope  ;  tik  like  Dochas,  doch-as,  hope. 
Tarbeeth,  increase  :  Toradh,  fruit. 

Touren,  a  mast;  a  steeple;  like  Torr,  a  hill  (the  idea  being  something 
high). 


TOV.  55 

Teroomoh,  an  oblation  :  perhaps  like  Thoir,  give. 

Tenoooh,  determination:  Teann, firm. 

Thou,  a  buffalo  :  Damh,  an  ox. 

To,  a  chamber :  Tigh,  a  house. 

Tehoum,  profound,  deep:  Tarah,  rest,  quiet.     From  tamh  come  these 

river-names — Tay,   Thames,  Tavy,  Tamar;    the  idea  being  a 

smoothly-flowing  river. 
Tour,  to  reconnoitre,  explore,  search  :  Dearc,  see. 
Teoumeem,  twins  :  Da,  two. 
Tooh,  to  wander,  to  go  astray :  perhaps  like  Taobh,  a  side. 

SECOND     GROUP. 

An  initial  t  is  either  added  in  Hebrew,  or  omitted  in  Gaelic ;  either  t, 
or  t  followed  by  a  vowel-sound. 

Tifhereth,  ti-phereth,  comely :  Briadha,  pretty ;  hence  Lowland- 
Scotch  braw. 

Tevel,  te-vel,  confusion  :  perhaps  like  Buail,  strike,  smite. 

Tevoonoh,  te-voon-oh,  understanding  ;  voon  like  Mein,  mind. 

Taanoug,  t-aanoug,  delight :  Aoibhneach,  pleasant. 

Tigroh,  ti-groh,  an  attack  :  perhaps  like  Gearr,  cut. 

Tevoosoth,  te-voos-oth,  treading  dozen ;  voos  like  Greek  pous ;  Latin 
pes;  Gaelic  Cos,  afoot ;  c  to p  and  v. 

Toka,  to-ka,  to  blow  a  horn  or  trumpet ;  ka  like  Guth,  a  voice. 

Tehilloh,  t-ehilloh,  praise  :  Iolach,  iol-ach,  a  shout. 

Tephilloh,  te-philloh,  prayer  :  perhaps  like  Beul,  the  mouth. 

Tenoooh,  a  prohibition  :  Neo,  not. 

Temoonoh,  t-em-oonoh,  a  resemblance  :  perhaps  em  like  Amhuil,  amh- 
uil,  like. 

Totyah,  a  going  out :  Uidhe,  a  step. 

Thakhanouneem,  supplication  ;  akh  like  Eigh,  a  cry,  earnest  entreaty. 

Tekhoonoh,  establishment,  eUab,  property  ;  tikhoun,  established.  See 
makhaneh,  a  camp.  Under  the  letter  kheth,  see  khonoh,  to 
encamp:  under  the  letter  kaph,  see  koon,  to  erect;  kan,  a  basis; 
konas,  konash,  to  gather  into  a  place  of  security:  under  the  letter 
koph,  see  kan,  a  nest;  konan,  to  make  a  nest.  Also  see  gan, 
a  garden  ;  gonan,  to  enclose.  Also  see  shekhan,  a  resting-place  ; 
shokhan,  to  rest;  shokhain,  an  inhabitant.  Of  khonoh,  kan,  and 
gan,  the  idea  is  an  enclosure.  All  these  Hebrew  words  are  akin 
to  each  other,  and  to  the  Gaelic  Comhnuidh,  comhn-uidh, 
a  dwelling ;  an  comhnuidh,  continually. 


HEBREW    AND    GAELIC. 

,  th-eer-oush,  new  wine:    Ur,  new;   uisge,   water;    from 
uisge  comes  whiskey. 

THIRD    GROUP. 

A  conjectural  affinity  is  offered  for  the  consideration  of  the  reader. 
Some  Hebrew  and  Gaelic  words  are  alike  in  meaning  and  sound, 
except  that  in  Hebrew  the  initial  letter  is  t ;  in  Gaelic,  c  or  g. 

Tour,  a  turn :  Car,  a  turn. 

Taavoh,  an  object  of  desire  :  Caomh,  dear. 

Toy,  a  mark;  tovoh,  to  mark;  Tabaath,  a  seal,  a  ring;  touph, 
a  tabret,  drum,  timbrel :  Caob,  strike. 

Teoloh,  a  conduit,  a  trench :  Caol,  narrow. 

Tomakh,  to  support,  to  sustain  ;  Cum,  hold. 

Teriph,  an  image  :  Cre,  earth. 

Taalumouth,  hidden  things  :  Ceil,  hide. 

Tophas,  to  lay  hold  of :  Gabh,  take. 

Teroooh,  a  sound  of  a  trumpet :  Gaoir,  noise. 

Thaar,  a  sharp  instrument,  a  razor  :  Gearr,  cut. 

Also  see  the  fifth  group  of  words  under  the  letter  tsade.  As  a  young 
child  learning  to  speak  often  uses  t  instead  of  c,  as  I  tome  for 
I  come,  some  would  be  inclined  to  say  that  the  people  who  used  c 
instead  of  t  were  more  advanced  in  mental  culture,  and  in  the  use 
of  the  faculty  of  speech. 

Tour,  a  row  (see  under  the  letter  teth,  toor,  a  row :  perhaps  like 
Sreath,  a  row ;  s  omitted ;  t  prefixed. 


OMITTED. 


In  page  9.     In  Hebrew  and  Gaelic  the  verb  has  no  present  tense. 
The  only  Gaelic  verb  that  has  one  is  the  verb  Bi,  to  be.  (Stewart.) 
In  Hebrew  and  Gaelic  there  are  only  two  genders,  masculine  and 
feminine  ;  no  neuter  gender. 
Aleph.     This  letter  is  here  represented  by  a,  e,  o,  or  u. 
Okhoo,  a  pasture,  a  meadow  :  like  the  Gaelic  Acha,  a  plain. 

(Acha  is  an  important  word,  and  enters  into  the  composition  of 
many  names  of  places,  as  Auchinleck,  &c.) 


HEBREW- CELTIC  AFFINITY.  57 

To  the  great  relief  of  the  reader,  I  now  come  to  the  end  of  this  Essay. 
Although  it  is  much  larger  than  it  was  in  1840  and  1870, 1  venture  to 
call  this  the  Third  Edition.  In  noting  these  signs  of  similarity,  or 
supposed  similarity,  between  the  Hebrew  and  the  Gaelic,  I  have  not 
received  any  help  from  any  quarter  —  printed  or  written  matter,  or 
conversation. 

Hebrew  has  a  way  of  prefixing  a  letter  or  a  syllable  to  Hebrew 
words ;  thus  koon  or  khoxoh  appear  as  tikhoun  and  shekhan. 

Has  Gaelic  a  way  of  prefixing  a  letter  or  a  syllable  to  Gaelic 
words?  This  exists  to  a  very  small  extent.  In  thirty- six  instances 
(or  more),  Gaelic  prefixes  a  letter  to  a  Gaelic  word;  in  five  cases  (or 
more),  Gaelic  prefixes  a  syllable  to  a  Gaelic  word.  Of  the  following 
pairs  of  Gaelic  words  the  meaning  is  either  the  same,  or  somewhat 
similar: — Abh,  tabh  :  abair,  labhair  :  acha,  faich  :  ar  (kill),  gearr  : 
ar  (plough),  gearr:  aom,  cam:  ais  (a  stronghold),  caise  (steepness): 
aig  —  as  in  aigeal,  aigeann  is  like  deoch :  bun,  spion :  brigh,  apart: 
ceil,  sgail :  corrach,  sgorrach :  eirich,  dirich  :  fal,  speal :  glaodh,  sgal : 
glaodh,  sgeul :  geinn,  sgain  :  garbh,  sgriob  :  garbh,  sgriobh  :  Ian,  slan : 
lar  (a  floor),  blar  (a  level  surface,  a  field):  luchd  (people),  sliochd 
(a  race,  descendants),  perhaps  sliochd  from  siol  (seed,  progeny)  and 
luchd;  the  oclul  being  a  collective  affix,  from  luchd:  loch,  slochd:  mein, 
smuain :  oileamh,  foghluim  :  ros,  gnos  (pronounced  gros) :  ruith,  sruit : 
ruith,  sruth  :  reic,  creic :  rann,  oran ;  rann,  cronan  :  tarbh,  storr : 
torr,  stor :  tir  (earth),  stur  (dust,  in  Lowland-Scotch  stour) :  uile  (all), 
buileach  (thoroughly). 

The  five  cases  where  Gaelic  prefixes  a  syllable  to  a  Gaelic  word 
are: — Falbh  (go),  siubhal,  siu-bhal  (travel):  leus,  solus:  saighead, 
sai-ghead  (an  arrow),  gath  (an  arrow,  a  dart) :  ruith  (to  flow,  to  run), 
gearrach  (a  flux) :  glaodh  (call),  focal,  fo-cal  (a  word). 

With  reference  to  the  above,  some  would  be  inclined  to  say  that  ar 
(to  kill),  and  ar  (to  plough),  need  not  be  supposed  to  be  akin  to  gearr. 
On  the  whole,  it  is  to  an  extremely  small  extent  that  Gaelic  has  a  way 
of  prefixing  a  letter  or  a  syllable  to  a  Gaelic  word.  Within  the  last 
hundred  years  or  so,  any  foreign  words  that  have  crept  into  the 
language  never  have  any  prefix  given  them  :  any  tendency  to  change 
is  in  the  direction  of  pronouncing  indistinctly  the  last  syllable  of 
some  words  :  in  this  way,  a  d  or  a  t  that  ought  to  be  sounded  is  made 
silent,  and  h  is  placed  after  it  to  show  this. 

Stewart,  writing  in  the  year  1801,  complains  that  in  some  parts  of 
the  Highlands,  from  laziness,  some  words  were  pronounced  not  dis- 


58  HEBREW- CELTIC    AFFINITY. 

tinctly  enough,  and  not  as  full  as  they  were  in  other  parts.   {Gaelic 
Grammar,  page  16.) 

If  some  readers  wish  it,  we  may  leave  out  the  conjectural  cases, 
and  attend  only  to  the  others,  and  then  even  the  most  timid  etymologist 
must  admit  that  there  is  a  wonderful  amount  of  affinity  between  the 
Hebrew  and  the  Celtic,  or  Keltic.  The  next  consideration  is,  how  to 
apply  this  to  any  historical  purpose.  Various  questions  may  be  asked, 
and  it  is  much  easier  to  ask  them  than  to  answer  them.  Are  Hebrew 
and  Celtic  of  equal  antiquity  ?  If  not  of  equal  antiquity,  which  is 
the  more  ancient?  I  do  not  know  enough  of  the  subject  to  be  able  to 
answer  this.  Some  may  say  that  the  grammatical  structure  of  Celtic 
is  more  elaborate  and  less  simple  than  that  of  Hebrew,  and  that 
therefore  Hebrew  looks  more  ancient.  But,  on  the  other  hand,  it  is 
impossible  to  say  what  its  grammatical  development  might  have  been, 
if  Hebrew  had  continued  to  be  a  spoken  language  till  now,  instead 
of  ceasing  *  to  be  a  living  tongue  perhaps  twenty-four  centuries  ago. 

If  there  was  no  direct  connection  between  Hebrew  and  Celtic,  did 
one  link,  that  is,  some  other  language,  come  in  between  ?  Or  were 
there  five  or  six  links  between,  that  is,  as  many  languages?  These 
inquiries  I  am  glad  to  leave  to  be  settled  by  others. 

For  the  sake  of  some  inquirers,  it  may  be  mentioned  that  interesting 
matter  on  philology  may  be  found  in  Monboddo's  Origin  of  Language, 
Brodie  on  Articulate  Sounds,  Barclay's  Sequel  to  the  Diversions  of 
Purley,  Prichard's  Physical  History  of  Mankind  (1837),  and  Mr. 
Gladstone's  Juventus  Mundi  (1869). 

The  darkness  of  early  history  may  in  some  cases  be  lessened  by 
the  light  of  etymological  research.  "  The  similitude  and  derivation 
of  languages  afford  the  most  indubitable  proof  of  the  traduction  of 
nations,  and  the  genealogy  of  mankind.  They  often  add  physical 
certainty  to  historical  evidence,  and  often  supply  the  only  evidence  of 
ancient  migrations,  and  of  the  revolutions  of  ages,  which  left  no 
written  monuments  behind  them."  (Dr.  Sam.  Johnson  in  a  Letter  to 
William  Drummond,  Life  by  Boawell,  vol  ii.,  page  3S.) 

*  Hebrew  appears  to  have  varied  but  little  in  a  period  of  one  thousand  years  from 
Moses  to  Malaehi.  The  old  Hebrew  became  extinct  as  a  living  language  about  500 
b.c;  a  thousand  year-  afterwards,  the  Masoretie  points  were  added  to  assist  in  its 
pronunciation.  The  Chaldee  had  superseded  the  Hebrew  at  the  time  of  the  captivity, 
and  was  gradually  converted  into  the  Syro-Ohahhiir,  whir  li  i  called  Hebrew  in  the 
New  Testament.  Thomas  Young,  m.i>.,  in  Article  '  Lan^ua^i  ,'  .supplement  to  the 
Encyclopaedia Britannica,  1824 ;  and Miscellaneou    Worl      i  55), vol   iii.,pageS2] 


HEBREW- CELTIC     AFFINITY.  59 

It  is  observed  by  Quintilian  that : — Grammatice  est  ars,  necessaria 
pueris,  jucunda  senibus,  dulcis  eecretorum  comes,  et  quae  vel  sola 
omni  studiorum  genere  plus  habet  operis,  quam  ostentationis.  Ne 
quis  tanquam  parva,  fastidiat  grammatices  elementa,  quia  interiora 
velut  sacri  hujus  adeuntibus,  apparebit  multa  rerum  subtilitas  qua? 
non  modo  acuere  ingenia  puerilia,  sed  exercere  altissimam  quoque 
eruditionem  ac  scientiam  possit.  (Institutes  of  Oratory,  i.  4.) 

The  relationship  of  the  different  branches  of  the  human  family  is 
a  part  of  Physiology  (or  Biology  in  the  most  correct  meaning  of  this 
word),  and  so  may  be  claimed  to  be  within  the  wide  area  of  Medical 
Investigation  or  Inquiry ;  and  this  relationship  has  to  be  traced  by  an 
examination  of  their  languages. 

The  assertions  of  those  who  disbelieve  the  Bible  account  of  the 
creation  of  man,  have  been  in  part  answered  by  writers  like  Dr. 
Prichard  and  others,  who  have  traced  the  links  of  language  through 
the  chain  of  the  world's  inhabitants. 

The  present  attempt  also  is,  as  far  as  it  goes,  a  small  contribution 
towards  the  same  end. 


HEBREW-  CELTIC  AFFINITY. 


NOTE    TO   FAGE   59. 

In  the  Affinity  of  the  Lathi  to  the  Celtic  (1840),  I  referred  to  what, 
about  that  time,  was  thought  in  some  quarters,  on  that  subject. 
Lieut.-Col.  Vans  Kennedy,  it. e. i.e. 8.  (afterwards  Major-General),  had 
resided  many  years  in  India,  and  had  occasion  there  to  give  much 
attention  to  the  subject  of  languages.  He  wrote,  On  the  Origin  and 
Affinity  of  Languages  (London:  Longmans.  1827.  Quarto).  Also, 
On  Ancient  and  Hindoo  Mythology  (London  :   Longmans.     Quarto). 

I  have  not  the  works  to  refer  to,  to  be  able  to  give  the  number  of 
pages,  but  the  reader  will  see  that  they  are  of  considerable  size,  as 
each  is  published  at  two  guineas  and  a  half.  In  the  former  work,  Vans 
Kennedy  says  that  Greek  and  Latin  have  no  affinity  to  the  Celtic. 
My  Essay  was,  as  far  as  I  know,  the  first  attempt  to  inquire  at  any 
length  into  the  subject.  I  gave  proofs  that  there  was  affinity,  and  also 
that  this  affinity  existed  to  a  very  considerable  extent. 

On  this  occasion  (1872),  on  looking  to  see  if  anything  has  been 
said  about  any  affinity  between  Hebrew  and  Celtic,  I  find  (April, 
1872)  some  remarks  in  Professor  Max  Miiller's  Chips  from  a  German 
Workshop  (London:  Longmans.  1867.  Vol.  i.,  page  22).  In  com- 
mon, I  suppose,  with  all  other  persons,  I  have  a  great  opinion  of  the 
talents  and  learning  of  Max  Miiller,  although,  when  he  refers  to  the 
Celtic,  I  am  not  always  able  to  see  the  correctness  of  his  views.  (I 
here  allude  to  an  article  on  Cornish  Antiquities  in  Chips  from  a  German 
Workshop,  vol.  iii.  (1870),  page  267.  There  is  not  room  in  this  place 
to  quote  it  at  length,  but  it  seems  to  me  to  show  a  most  transparent 
want  of  fairness  when  he  is  referring  certain  specimens  of  language 
and  buildings  to  their  source,  whether  Celtic,  Roman,  Saxon,  or 
Norman.) 

Max  Miiller  speaks  of  the  way  of  arranging  the  languages  of  the 
world  in  four  divisions. 

In  the  Indo-European  division  are  Sanskrit,  Persian,  Celtic, 
Slavonic,  Greek,  Latin  (and  the  four  daughters  of  Latin,  Italian, 
French,  Spanish,  and  Portuguese) ;  all  the  Teutonic  languages  of 
Europe;  and  English.  "All  these  languages  together  form  one 
"  family,  one  whole,  in  which  every  member  shares  certain  features  in 
"  common  with  all  the  rest,  and  is  at  the  same  time  distinguished  from 
"  the  rest  by  certain  features  peculiarly  its  own. 

"  The  same  applies  to  the  Semitic  family,  which  comprises,  as  its 
"most  important  members,  the  Hebrew  of  the  Old  Testament,  the 
"Arabic  of  the  Koran,  and  the  ancient  languages  on  the  monuments 
"  of  Phenicia  and  Carthage,  of  Babylon  and  Assyria.  These  languages 
"again  form  a  compact  family,  and  differ  entirely  from  the  other 
"  family,  which  we  called  Aryan  or  Indo-European."  [Chips,  i.  p.  22.) 

The  reader  is  asked  to  compare  the  opinion  given  in  the  above 
extract,  with  the  proofs  here  given  of  the  existence  of  a  very  great 
affinity  between  Hebrew  and  Celtic. 
May,  1872. 


APPENDIX. 


ESSAYS     BY     DE.    8TRATT0N. 


1.  Illustrations  of  the  Affinity  of  Latin  to  the  Gaelic  Language, 
or  the  Celtic  of  Scotland.  Toronto,  Upper  Canada.  Hugh  Scobio. 
Printed  by  Hugh  Scobie,  at  the  office  of  the  British  Colonist  News- 
paper.    1840. 

Two  hundred  and  fifty  copies  printed.    Published  in  July,  1840. 

(Extracts,  six  or  eight  inches  long,  from  the  above  were  printed 
in  twenty- nine  successive  numbers  of  the  Cuairtear  nan  Coillte 
(Tourist  of  the  Woods),  a  Gaelic  weekly  newspaper  published  at 
Kingston,  Upper  Canada,  in  1841  and  1842.  The  Cuairtear  began  in 
December,  1840,  and  was  continued  for  at  least  two  years.) 

2.  Proofs  of  the  Celtic  Origin  of  a  great  part  of  the  Greek 
Language ;  being  a  comparison  of  Greek  with  the  Gaelic  Language, 
or  the  Celtic  of  Scotland.  Kingston,  Upper  Canada.  Printed  by  John 
Creighton,  at  the  office  of  the  Chronicle  and  Gazette  Newspaper. 
1840. 

Two  hundred  and  thirty  copies  printed.  Published  in  September, 
1840.  Although  not  mentioned  in  the  title-page,  at  the  end  was  given 
a  short  comparative  vocabulary  of  Hebrew  and  Gaelic.  The  above 
two  were  published  at  Is.  6d. 

3.  The  Derivation  of  many  Classical  Proper  Names  from  the  Gaelic 
Language,  or  the  Celtic  of  Scotland ;  being  Part  Third  of  an  Inquiry 
into  the  Partly- Celtic  Origin  of  the  Greeks  and  Eomans.  Edinburgh  : 
Adam  and  Charles  Black ;  and  Longman  &  Co.,  London.  1845. 
Printed  at  the  University  Press,  Thistle  Street,  Edinburgh,  by 
Stevenson  &  Co.     Pp.  47.     Price  Is.  6d. 

Two  hundred  and  fifty  copies  printed. 

4.  The  Celtic  Origin  of  a  Great  Part  of  the  Greek  and  Latin 
Languages,  and  of  many  Classical  Proper  Names  ;  being  a  comparison 


62  APPENDIX. 

•of  Greek  and  Latin  with  the  Gaelic  Language.  Second  Edition. 
Edinburgh :  Maclachlan  and  Stewart ;  and  Simpkin,  Marshall,  &  Co., 
London.  Printed  by  John  Smith,  Treville  Street,  Plymouth.  1870. 
Pp.  100.  Three  hundred  and  fifty  copies  printed.  This  was  a  second 
edition  of  the  three  essays  mentioned  above.  The  comparative  vocabu- 
lary of  Hebrew  and  Gaelic  was  printed  as  in  1840,  and  without  any 
alteration.     Price  2s.  6d. 

5.  On  the  Necessity  for  the  Formation  of  the  Scottish  National 
Association  for  the  Vindication  of  Scottish  Rights.  This  was  published 
in  Hasmrd's  Gazette  (a  weekly  newspaper,  Prince-Edward  Island),  of 
30  November,  1853. 

Forty  copies  struck  off  in  pamphlet-form. 

Also  in  the  Islander  (a  weekly  newspaper,  Prince-Edward  Island), 
of  9  December,  1853.  One  hundred  copies  struck  off  in  pamphlet- 
form  (seven  pages). 

Also  in  the  Toronto  Neivs  of  the  Week,  of  about  17  January,  1854. 

In  1853  there  was  great  need  for  the  Scottish  Rights  Association  ; 
there  is  nearly  as  much  in  1872.  Some  persons  may  ask,  What  con- 
nection is  there  between  the  Scottish  Rights  Association  and  Celtic 
matters  ?  If  the  Society  had  continued  its  proceedings,  it  is  likely 
that  the  Scotch  Census  of  1861  and  1871  would  have  been  taken  in  a 
proper  manner. 


THE  HIGHLAND  SOCIETY  OF  CANADA 
Is  a  Branch  of  the  Highland  Society  of  London.  In  1844,  it  held 
its  meetings  at  the  town  of  Cornwall,  on  the  left  bank  of  the  St. 
Lawrence,  eighty-two  miles  above  Montreal.  The  number  of  its 
honorary  members  was  limited  to  twelve.  On  account  of  the  Celtic 
Origin  of  Greek  and  Latin  the  Society,  in  1844,  made  me  an  honorary 
member.  An  account  of  the  Society,  by  Archibald  John  Macdonncll, 
of  Greenfield,  Canada,  was  published,  in  1844,  by  Messrs.  Armour 
and  Ramsay,  Montreal. 


THE    CENSUS   OE   SCOTLAND.     1871. 


An  Act  of  Parliament  respecting  the  Census  to  be  held  in  April  is 
passed  in  the  year  previous.  The  wording  of  the  Act  is  the  same  for 
the  three  divisions  of  the  United  Kingdom.  In  1870  and  1871  the 
Home-Secretary  was  the  Eight  Hon.  Henry  A.  Bruce ;  the  Lord 
Advocate,  the  Right  Hon.  George  Young;  the  Registrar-General  of 
Scotland,  William  Pitt  Dundas,  Esq.  In  the  three  Acts  passed  in 
1870,  there  is  no  mention  made  of  the  Gaelic,  Welsh,  or  Irish 
languages.  Each  Census-return  is  in  the  form  of  a  Report  addressed 
to  the  Home-Secretary.  If  the  Welsh-language  statistics  had  been 
omitted,  some  might  have  attributed  this,  and  the  omission  of  the 
Gaelic-language  statistics,  to  some  action,  or  want  of  action,  on  the 
part  of  the  Home-Secretary.  But  as  the  Welsh-speaking  inhabitants 
were  numbered  in  1871,  there  does  not  seem  to  be  altogether  a 
sufficient  reason  for  this  notion,  and  apparently  those  interested  in 
Gaelic  must  attribute  their  disappointment  (in  the  Gaelic-speaking 
inhabitants  not  being  enumerated)  to  the  Registrar-General  at 
Edinburgh.  Some  persons  then  said  that  the  language-statistics  ought 
to  be  taken  by  themselves,  and  the  expense  of  doing  so  deducted  from 
the  salary  of  the  Scotch  Registrar-General.  In  the  Acts  of  Parliament 
ordering  the  Census,  there  ought  to  be  distinct  mention  of  the  Gaelic, 
Welsh,  Irish,  and  Manx  languages.  It  is  a  matter  too  important  to  be 
left  to  chance,  and  to  the  caprice  or  indifference  of  whatever  officials 
may  happen  to  be  in  office  at  the  time. 

As  it  is  the  country  that  is  at  the  expense  of  the  Census  being 
taken,  the  country  has  a  right  to  require  that  it  be  taken  in  a  proper 
manner.  In  May,  1870,  the  following  was  sent  to  the  Home-Secretary  : 
"  To  the  Right  Hon  Henry  A.  Bruce,  Secretary  of  State  for  the  Home 
J  lipai'tment.  The  Memorial  of  the  Committee  of  the  General 
Assembly  of  the  Free  Church  of  Scotland,  for  the  Highlands  and 
Hebrides,  Sheweth — That  it  is  desirable,  in  taking  the  Census  in  1871, 
that  care  should  be  tuken  to  secure  the  accurate  enumeration  of  tho 
Gaelic-speaking  population  of  Scotland  ;  that  many  important  pur- 
poses, botli  social  and  educational,  would  be  served  by  having  such  an 
enumeration;  that  this  was  done  in  the  case  of  the  Irish -speaking 
population  of  Ireland  in  the  last  Census ;  and  that  reasons  equally 
weighty  exist  for  having  the  same  done  in  the  case  of  Scotland.  That 
one  column  in  the  Census-Schedule  would  secure  the  object,  which 
should  bo  to  ascertain  the  number  that  can  speak  Gaelic.  May  it 
please  Eer  Majesty's  Government  to  take  steps  for  the  above  purpose. 
In  name  ami  by  authority  of  the  Committee,  (Signed,)  Thomas 
Haclai  chlan,  Convent  i ." 


CENSUS  OF  ENGLAND  AND  WALES.     1871. 


Registrar-General,  George  Graham,  Esq. 
Medical  Superintendent  of  Statistics,  William  Farr,  M.D. 


THE  WELSH   LANGUAGE. 

The  Preliminary  Report  on  the  Census  states,  that  in  1871  they  issued 
for  Wales  some  schedules  in  Welsh.  It  is  not  mentioned  how  many 
in  Welsh,  and  how  many  in  English,  nor  how  many  Welsh  schedules 
were  used.  The  writer  adds,  that  in  1881  they  will  perhaps  not 
require  to  issue  any  schedules  in  Welsh.  The  Welsh  Census,  besides 
North  and  South  Wales,  includes  the  county  of  Monmouth,  which  in 
local  situation,  in  race,  and  in  language,  is  a  part  of  Wales.  There 
are  about  thirty  Welsh  periodical  publications  in  Wales,  America,  and 
Australia.  Remarks  on  the  language  and  literature  of  Wales  may  be 
found  in  Fraser's  Magazine  for  August,  1870,  and  for  January,  March, 
April,  and  June,  1871.  If  they  had  always  noted  the  Welsh-language 
statistics  at  each  Census  since  1801,  we  should  now  have  been  able  to 
see  at  one  view,  its  condition  at  the  eight  ten-yearly  periods.  The 
results  ascertained  in  1871  have  not  yet  (May,  1872)  been  published, 
otherwise  they  would  have  been  given  here. 

THE  MANX   LANGUAGE. 

The  Secretary  to  the  Governor  has  the  superintendence  of  the 
Census.  It  is  much  to  be  regretted  that  the  language-statistics  have 
always  been  neglected.  There  are  two  churches  where,  once  a  month, 
the  service  is  in  Manx.  As  Man  is  seventeen  miles  distant  from 
Scotland,  twenty- eight  miles  from  England,  and  twenty- eight  miles 
from  Ireland,  the  island  geographically  belongs  to  Scotland.  It  is 
likely  that  the  first  inhabitants  of  Man  went  to  it  from  Scotland. 

Man  received  its  name  from  Mainus,  a  son  of  Fergus  the  First, 
who  ascended  the  throne  of  Scotland  290  B.C.  The  island  belonged  to 
Scotland  from  at  least  290  B.C.  to  a.d.  395,  or  6S5  years.  Also  from 
the  year  581  to  611,  or  thirty  years.  Also  from  the  year  12'36  to  1344, 
or  seventy-ei^ht  years.  These  three  periods  make  793  years.  In  1603, 
James  VI.  of  Scotland  became  also  king  of  England  :  previous  to  1603, 
Man  for  793  years  belonged  to  Scotland.  The  southern  isles  of  the 
Hebrides  were  put  in  a  group  with  Man,  and  hence  arose  the  name 
Sodor  and  Man.  (There  is  not  only  an  inaccuracy,  but  something 
more,  in  the  Bishop  of  Man  being  styled  of  Sodor.)  For  some  time 
the  Duke  of  Athol  (by  marriage  with  one  of  the  Stanley  family,  the 
family  of  the  Earl  of  Derby)  was  titular  Kin?  of  Man.  As  Europe 
was  peopled  from  east  to  west,  perhaps  emigrants  from  Scotland 
passed  over  Id  Man,  and  thence  to  Ireland.  Portpatrick,  in  Scotland, 
is  only  twenty-two  miles  distant  from  Ireland. 


CENSUS   OF   IRELAND.     1871. 


Registrar- General,  William  Donelly,  Esq. 

Superintendent  of  Medical  Statistics,  William  M.  Burke,  Esq. 

—  Wilkie,  Esq.,  Secretary  to  the  Census  Commissioners. 


NUMBER  OF  THE  IRISH- SPEAKING  POPULATION. 


In  1851. 

f 

In  1861. 

Province  of 

"Who 
spoke 
Irish 
only. 

Who 

spoke 

Irish  & 

English. 

Total 
Persons 
speaking 

Irish. 

Who 
spoke 
Irish 
only. 

Who 

spoke 

Irish  & 

English. 

Total 
Persons 
speaking 

Irish. 

Leinster  ... 

200 

58,976 

59,176 

238 

35,466 

35,704 

Ulster  

146,336 

669,449 

815,785 

62,039 

483,492 

545,531 

Munster  ... 

35,783 

100,693 

136,476 

23,180 

91,639 

114,819 

Connaught. 

137,283 

375,566 

512,849 

77,818 

331,664 

409,482 

Whole     of 
Ireland... 

319,602 

1,204,684 

1,524,286 

163,275 

942,261 

1.105,536 

Proportion 

per  cent,  of 

Persons 

speaking 

Irish 

to  the  whole 

Population. 


363 
GO 
44-9 


The  reader  will  observe  that  in  ten  years,  the  percentage  of  Irish- 
speaking  persons  to  the  whole  population  fell  from  twenty-three  to 
nineteen.  The  year  18-51  was  the  first  time  that  the  Irish-language 
statistics  were  taken.  The  results  for  1871  have  not  yet  (May,  1872) 
been  published,  otherwise  they  would  have  been  given  here.  The 
intelligent  way  in  which,  since  1851,  the  Irish  Census  has  been  taken 
deserves  the  greatest  praise,  and  ought  to  be  imitated  by  the  other 
three  Celtic-speaking  parts  of  the  United  Kingdon. 


ESSAYS  AND  PAPEKS 


THOMAS     STRATTON, 

M.D.  of  the  University  of  Edinburgh,  1  August,  1837  ; 

Licentiate  of  the  Royal  College  of  Surgeons  of  Edinburgh,  18  April,  1837 ; 

Staff-Surgeon,  Royal  Navy,  IS  May,  1859; 

Deputy  Inspector-General  of  Hospitals  and  Fleets,  5  June,  18G7. 


PUBLISHED  IN  THE   EDINBURGH   MEDICAL   &   SURGICAL  JOURNAL. 


1.  Case  of  Anthracosis,  or  Black  Infiltration  of  the  whole  Lungs. 

Number  for  April,  1838. 

2.  On  the  Lake  Fever  of  Canada.  April,  1841. 

3.  On  the  Winter-Hydrophobia  of  Canada.  April,  1842. 

4.  An  Account  of  Twenty-two  Cases  of  Gun-shot  Wounds  received 

in  Canada  in  1838.  October,  1842. 

5.  On  the  Comparative  Frequency  of  the  Morning   and  Evening 

Pulse.  January,  1843. 

6.  On  the  Existence  of  Entozoa  in  the  Shut  Cavities  of   Living 

Animals;  with  a  Case.  July,  1843. 

7.  On  the  Employment  of  Belladonna  in  Trismus  and  Hydrophobia. 

July,  1843. 

8.  On  Glossitis  and  Delirium  Tremens.  October,  1843. 

9.  Case  of  Asthmatic  Ague.  October,  1843. 

10.  Proposal  of  a  New  Scale  for  the  Graduating  of  Thermometers. 

January,  1844. 

11.  On  the  Rate  of  Mortality  in  the  Medical  Department  of  the  British 

Navy  for  Twenty-five  Years,  from  1817  to  1841. 

January,  1844. 

12.  On  Quotidian  Intermittent  Fever.  April,  1844. 

13.  Additional  Notes  on  a  Proposed  New  Thermometric  Scale. 

July,  1844. 


APPENDIX— ESSAYS  AND  PAPERS.  67 

14.  On  Tertian  Intermittent  Fever.  April,  1845. 

15.  jXotice  of  an  Epidemic  of  Scarlet  Fever  and  Scarlet  Sore  Throat 

which  prevailed  in  1843-44.  April,  1845. 

16.  On  Malarial  Fevers,  as  observed  in  Canada  from  1838  to  1845. 

Part  I.     On  Malarial  Continued  Fever.  July,  1845 

17.  Case  of   Gun-shot   Wound,  and   Excision   of  the   Head  of  the 

Humerus  :  the  result  a  useful  Arm.  January,  1846. 

18.  On  Malarial  Fevers,  as  observed  in  Canada  from  1838  to  1846. 

Part  II.  Analysis  of  Repeated  Attacks  in  the  same  Individual. 

July,  1846. 

19.  Meteorological  Observations  in  Canada  in  1843  and  1844. 

January,  1847. 

20.  Meteorological  Observations  in  Canada  in  1845.  July,  1847. 

21 .  On  the  Comparative  Deodorizing  Powers  of  tho  Disinfecting  Fluids 

of  Sir  William  Burnett  and  of  Mr.  Ledoyen.       January,  1843. 

22.  Meteorological  Observations  in  Canada  in  1846  and  1847. 

January,  1S48. 

23.  Remarks  on  the  Sickness  and  Mortality  among  the  Emigrants  to 

Canada  in  1847,  and  Suggestions  for  an  improved  Method  of 
Regulating  Future  Emigration.     (Ten  pages.)  July,  1848. 

24.  Remarks  on  Antiseption,  Deodorization,  and  Disinfection,  and  on 

Sir  William  Burnett's  Disinfecting  Fluid,  the  Solution  of  the 
Chloride  of  Zinc.     (Eleven  pages.)  October,  1848. 

25.  Cases  of  Recovery  from  Poisoning  with  Chloride  of  Zinc,  and  the 

Proposal  of  an  Antidote  for  this  Poison:    (The  Antidote   is 
Carbonate  of  Soda,  or  Carbonato  of  Potash,  or  Soap.) 

October,  1848. 

26.  Additional   Notes   on   the   Sickness   and    Mortality   among    the 

Emigrants  to  Canada  in  1847.  January,  1849. 

27.  Contribution  to  an  Account  of  the  Diseases  of  the  North  American 

Indians.  April,  1819. 

28.  On  the  Comparative  Therapeutic  Powers  of  Quinine  and  Bebeerine. 

October,  1849. 

29.  Medical  Remarks  on  Emigrant  Ships  to  North  America. 

January,  1850. 

30.  History  of  the  Epidemic  Cholera  in  Chatham  and  Rochester  in 

1849.     (Forty-four  pages.)  April,  1851. 

31.  Notice  of  the  Chatham  and  Rochester  Leper  Hospital.     July,  1851. 

32.  On  the  British  Naval  Medical  Department,  and  that  of  the  United 

States.  January,  1852. 

h  2 


68  APPENDIX— ESSAYS  AND  PAPERS. 

33.  On  the  Employment  of  a  Long,  Flexible  Stethoscope  for  Self- 

auscultation.  January,  18.52. 

34.  On  the  Mortality  in  the  Medical  Department  of  the  Navy  for  the 

Ten  Years  ending  in  1851.  January,  1853. 

35.  Meteorological  Observations  in  Prince-Edward  Island  in  1851. 

April,  1853. 

36.  Statistics  of  Shipwreck-Mortality  in  the  British  Navy  for  Fifty- 

seven  Years.  July,  1853. 

37.  On  Poisoning  with  Chloride  of  Zinc,  and  on  a  lately- published 

Case  thereof;  with  Notes  of  Eight  Cases.  July,  1854. 

38.  On  the  Bate  of  Mortality  in  the  Medical  Department  of  the  Navy 

for  the  Nine  Years  ending  in  1860.  March,  1861. 

39.  On  the  Eate  of  Mortality  in  the  Medical  Department  of  the  Navy 

for  the  Ten  Years  ending  in  December,  1870.  March,  1871. 

Likewise  other  Communications  in  the  Numbers  for  July,  1843  ; 
January,  1849;  April,  1850;  and  April,  1852. 

OF  THE   ABOVE  PAPERS:— 

No.  17  appeared  also  in  the  Montreal  British  American  Medical  Journal, 
1846. 

No.  21  appeared  also  in  the  British  American  Medical  Journal,  1848. 

No.  23  appeared  also  in  the  British  American  Medical  Journal,  April, 
1848.  Also  in  pamphlet-form;  eighteen  pages;  fifty  copies 
printed.  This  Paper  was  inserted  at  full-length  in  three  Mon- 
treal newspapers,  of  7th  and  8th  April,  1848,  and  in  Simmonds' 
Colonial  Magazine  (London),  June,  1848. 

No.  24  appeared  also  in  the  British  American  Medical  Journal,  June, 
1848.  Also  in  pamphlet- form;  sixteen  pages;  one  hundred 
copies  printed. 

No.  25  appeared  also  in  the  British  American  Medical  Journal,  Decem- 
ber, 1848. 

No.  30  appeared  also  in  pamphlet  -  form ;  forty- four  pages:  one 
hundred  copies  printed. 


> 


APPENDIX—  BIBLIOGEAPHY 


Bibliotheca  Scoto-Celtica;  or,  an  Account  of  all  the  Books  that  have 

been  printed  in  the  Gaelic  Language.  By  John  Reid.  Glasgow, 

1832.     Pp.  72  and  178.     12s.    It  is  much  to  be  desired  that  we 

had  an  edition  brought  down  to  the  present  time. 
Ossian's  Poems.    Translated  by  James  Macpherson.    There  have  been 

numerous  editions;  the  smaller  ones  omit  the  notes.     In  Mac- 

millan's   Magazine,    June,  1871,  is   an   article    on   Ossian  by 

Principal  Shairp  of  St.  Andrew's.     He  believes  that  the  poems 

are  genuine.  I  believe  that  they  are  genuine,  of  great  antiquity, 

and  composed  by  Ossian. 
Fingal ;  a  Poem  of  Ossian.     Translated  by  James  Macpherson,  and 

rendered  into  Verse  by  Ewen  Cameron.     Warrington,  1776. 

4to.     Pp.  419. 
Ossian's  Poems  in  Gaelic,  with  a  Latin  Translation  by  Robert  Mac- 

farlan,  an  Essay  by  Sir  John  Sinclair,  Bart.,  and  Notes  by  John 

Macarthur,  ll  d.  Published  by  the  Highland  Society  of  London. 

London,  1807.     3  vols.,  8vo.     42s. 
Some  of  Ossian's  Lesser  Poems  rendered  into  Verse,  with  an  Essay  by 

Archibald  Macdonald.    Liverpool  and  London,  1805.    Pp.284. 
The  Highland  Society's  Report  on  Ossian.     1805. 
Darthula ;  a  Poem  of  Ossian  rendered  into  Blank  Verse  by  —  Burke. 
Darthula ;  a  Poem  of  Ossian  translated  into  Greek  by  the  Hon.  and 

Rev.  William  Herbert,  Dean  of  Manchester. 
Ossian's  Remains.    Edited  by  Patrick  Macgregor.  London,  1841.   12s. 
Ossian's  Poems  in  Gaelic,  with  a  metrical   translation  by  the  Rev. 

Archibald  Clerk.     Edinburgh,  1871.     2   vols.,   Svo.     31s.    6d. 

This  beautiful  edition  owes  its  publication  to  the  generosity  of 

the  Marquis  of  Bute. 
In  all  these  works  relating  to  Ossian,  there  is  in  the  essays  and 

notes  much  information  respecting  Gaelic. 
Historical  Proofs  respecting  the  Gael  of  Albyn,  and  the  Highlanders 

of  Scotland.   By  Colonel  James  A.  Robertson.  Second  Edition. 

Edinburgh,  1856.  Pp.642.   6s.   This  is  a  most  interesting  work. 
The  Gaelic  Topography  of  Scotland.  By  Colonel  James  A.  Robertson. 

Edinburgh,  1859.    Pp.  544.     7s.  6d.    The  author  deserves  well 

of  all  Highlanders. 
Words  and  Places.     By  the  Rev.  Isaac  Taylor,  a.m.     London,  1864. 

2  vols.   This  admirable  work  was  first  seen  by  me  in  Jan.,  1869. 
The  Gaelic  Language ;  its  Classical  Affinities  and  Distinctive  Character. 

A  Lecture  by  John  Stuart  Blaikie,  Professor  of  Greek  in  the 

University  of  Edinburgh.    Edinburgh  :  Edmonston  &  Douglas, 

1864.     Pp.  32. 


70  APPENDIX— BIBLIOGRAPHY. 

A  Lecture  on  the  Gaelic  Language.  By  Professor  Blaikie.  Delivered 
at  Oban,  in  September,  1870.  May  be  found  in  the  third 
number  of  the  Gael  (1871),  a  Gaelic  monthly  magazine  (with  a 
supplement  in  English). 

The  Gael ;  a  Gaelic  monthly  magazine  (with  a  supplement  in  English). 
Octavo.  The  first  three  numbers  were  printed  in  Toronto, 
Canada ;  the  fourth  number  in  Glasgow.  It  will  in  future  be 
printed  in  Glasgow.  For  twelve  numbers,  to  all  parts  of  the 
United  Kingdom  ami  North  America,  5s.  sterling,  and  6d. 
postage ;  to  Australia,  New  Zealand,  &c,  6s.,  and  Is.  postage. 
Nicolson  &  Co.,  74,  Argyle  Street,  Glasgow.  No.  4  is  for  June, 
1872. 

Articles  on  Celtic  subjects  are  to  be  found  in  the  Dublin  University 
Magazine  for  October  and  December,  18G9,  and  January,  1870  ; 
and  in  the  Broadway  for  July  and  August,  1871  (a  London 
monthly  magazine, published  at  14,  York  Street,  Covent Garden). 

Macalpine'8  Pronouncing  Gaelic-English  Dictionary.  Fifth  Edition. 
Edinburgh,  1866.     5s. 

Macalpine's  English-Gaelic  Dictionary.     5s. 

"We  ought  to  be  very  grateful  to  Mr.  Neil  Macalpine  for  his  Pro- 
nouncing Dictionary.  As  far  as  I  know,  no  other  Celtic 
language  possesses  a  pronouncing  dictionary.  Mr.  Macalpine 
died  in  1 80 7  or  1868,  in  North  Perthshire. 

The  Bible-Student's  Concordance.  By  Aaron  Pick,  Professor  of 
Hebrew  and  Chaldce,  from  the  University  of  Prague.  London  : 
Hamilton,  Adams,  &  Co.  Printed  by  Macintosh,  London. 
1845.  Quarto.  Pp.590.  35s.  This  is  a  Concordance  to  the 
Old  Testament  only.  The  alphabetical  arrangement  is  according 
to  the  English  translation.  Each  word  is  followed  by  its 
meaning  in  Hebrew  in  Hebrew  characters,  and  then  in  Hebrew 
in  English  letters.  The  work  has  long  been  out  of  print.  It  is 
strange  that  it  has  not  been  reprinted. 
For  the  use  of  this  work,  and  other  books  relating  to  Hebrew,  I  am 
indebted  to  the  kindness  of  the  Rev.  John  M.  Charlton,  m.a., 
Western  College,  Mannamead,  Plymouth. 

A  Glossary  of  Cornish  Names.  By  the  Rev.  John  Bannister,  ll.d. 
London :  Williams  and  Norgate.     1871.     Pp.212.     12s. 

The  Nomenclature  of  Cornwall.     By  Dr.  Bannister.  [In  preparation.) 
Dr.  Bannister  deserves  great  praise  for  the  attention  he  gives  to  the 
remains  of  the  Celtic  of  Cornwall. 

The  Physical  History  of  Mankind.  By  James  Oowles  Prichard,  m  d. 
London,  1837.     3  vols.,  8vo. 

Obermiiller's  German-Celtic  Historical  and  Geographical  Dictionary; 
or,  Deutsch-Keltisches  Wòrterbuch.  Leipzig :  Ludwig  Denicke. 
London:  Williams  and  Norgate.     1867- 

Stuart  Glennie's  Arthurian  Localities  in  Scotland.  London:  Macmil- 
l.m.   1869.  7s.  Od.  (Also  see  Macmillan's  Magazine,  Dec,  1867.) 

Edmunds'  Names  of  Places  in  England  and  Wales.  New  Edition. 
London,  1872.     6s. 


APPENDIX.  71 

Joyce's  Irish  Names  of  Places.    Third  Edition.    Dublin,  1871.  7s.  6<1. 

On  the  Study  of  Celtic  Literature.  By  Matthew  Arnold.  1867-  8s.  6d. 
The  last  five  works  I  have  not  yet  had  an  opportunity  of  seeing. 
Messrs.  Maclachlan  and  Stewart,  South  Bridge,  Edinburgh, 
issue  a  list  of  Gaelic  Books,  Grammars,  Dictionaries,  and  works 
relating  to  Gaelic  literature ;  and  to  this  list  I  beg  to  refer  any 
young  student  of  the  old  language  of  Scotland. 


THE   GRAMPIAN   CLUB    (OF   LONDON) 

"Was  founded  in  the  autumn  of  1868,  for  the  purpose  of  printing 
manuscripts  and  works  relating  to  Scottish  literature,  history,  and 
antiquities.  The  works  issued  have  been  Dr.  Rogers'  Scotland,  Social 
and  Domestic;  Mr.  Oliphant's  Jacobite  Lairds  of  Gask ;  Dr.  Rogers' 
Scottish  Monuments  (first  volume).  In  April,  1872,  each  member 
received  as  a  gift  from  the  Marquis  of  Bute  (a  member  of  the  G.  C.) 
the  Cartulary  of  Cambuskenneth  Abbey.  This  is  a  splendid  quarto  of 
438  pages,  with  many  engravings. 

The  Rev.  Charles  Rogers,  ll.d.,  is  the  honorary  secretary.  The 
honorary  treasurer  is  Alfred  Gliddon,  Esq.,  City  Bank,  159,  Tottenham- 
Court  Road,  London.  The  expenses  are  limited  to  postages  and 
stationery.  There  is  no  entry-money.  One  guinea  is  the  yearly 
payment,  due  in  January.  In  April,  1872,  the  number  of  members 
was  two  hundred  and  eight.  Of  course,  the  more  members  a  Printing 
Club  has,  the  more  it  is  able  to  publish.  There  is  no  limit  to  the 
ni.mber  of  members.  As  one  of  them,  I  take  this  opportunity  of 
helping  to  make  known  the  excellent  objects  the  Club  has  in  view. 


OMITTED. 

In  Page  56,  third  line  from  the  foot. 

For  Acha,  a  plain,  read  Acha,  afield,  a  plain,  a  meadow :  hence  Low- 
land-Scotch haugh,  level  ground  on  a  river-side,  as  the  Haugh  of 
Meiklour ;  the  gh  sounded  like  ch  in  loch. 


W.  Brendon  and  Son,  1  rinter?,  Ph  mouth. 


LIST    OF    GAELIC    BOOKS 

And  Works  on  the  Highlands 


PUBLISHED   AND   SOLD  BY 


MACLACHLAN     &     STEWART, 

BOOKSELLERS   TO   THE   UNIVERSITY, 

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